Next Article in Journal
Food Rating Scale in Food Services: From Development to Assessment of a Strategy for Consumer Healthier Choices
Previous Article in Journal
Selected Psychological Aspects of Meat Consumption—A Short Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Adherence to a Higher Protein Diet on Weight Loss, Markers of Health, and Functional Capacity in Older Women Participating in a Resistance-Based Exercise Program
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091302

A Plant-Based High-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Diet in Overweight Individuals in a 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial: The Role of Carbohydrates

1
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, 5100 Wisconsin Ave, N.W. Ste.400, Washington, DC 20016, USA
2
School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
3
Adjunct Faculty, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC 20016, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Loss)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1731 KB, uploaded 14 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

The effects of carbohydrates on body weight and insulin sensitivity are controversial. In this 16-week randomized clinical trial, we tested the role of a low-fat, plant-based diet on body weight, body composition and insulin resistance. As a part of this trial, we investigated the role of changes in carbohydrate intake on body composition and insulin resistance. Participants (n = 75) were randomized to follow a plant-based high-carbohydrate, low-fat (vegan) diet (n = 38) or to maintain their current diet (n = 37). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition. Insulin resistance was assessed with the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) index. A repeated measure ANOVA model was used to test the between-group differences from baseline to 16 weeks. A linear regression model was used to test the relationship between carbohydrate intake, and body composition and insulin resistance. Weight decreased significantly in the vegan group (treatment effect −6.5 [95% CI −8.9 to −4.1] kg; Gxt, p < 0.001). Fat mass was reduced in the vegan group (treatment effect −4.3 [95% CI −5.4 to −3.2] kg; Gxt, p < 0.001). HOMA-IR was reduced significantly in the vegan group (treatment effect −1.0 [95% CI −1.2 to −0.8]; Gxt, p = 0.004). Changes in consumption of carbohydrate, as a percentage of energy, correlated negatively with changes in BMI (r = −0.53, p < 0.001), fat mass (r = −0.55, p < 0.001), volume of visceral fat (r = −0.35, p = 0.006), and HOMA (r = −0.27, p = 0.04). These associations remained significant after adjustment for energy intake. Changes in consumption of total and insoluble fiber correlated negatively with changes in BMI (r = −0.43, p < 0.001; and r = −0.46, p < 0.001, respectively), fat mass (r = −0.42, p < 0.001; and r = −0.46, p < 0.001, respectively), and volume of visceral fat (r = −0.29, p = 0.03; and r = −0.32, p = 0.01, respectively). The associations between total and insoluble fiber and changes in BMI and fat mass remained significant even after adjustment for energy intake. Increased carbohydrate and fiber intake, as part of a plant-based high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet, are associated with beneficial effects on weight, body composition, and insulin resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrates; diet; fiber; nutrition; plant-based; vegan carbohydrates; diet; fiber; nutrition; plant-based; vegan
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kahleova, H.; Dort, S.; Holubkov, R.; Barnard, N.D. A Plant-Based High-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Diet in Overweight Individuals in a 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial: The Role of Carbohydrates. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1302.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top