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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091234

Effect of Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Olive Oil Intake during Pregnancy on Risk of Small for Gestational Age Infants

1
Department of Nursing, University of Jaén, Building B3 Office 266, Campus de Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaén, Spain
2
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Complejo Hospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
4
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
5
Division of Preventive Medicine, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract

To quantify the effect of a Mediterranean dietary pattern, as well as the consumption of olive oil (OO), on the risk of having a small for gestational age infants (SGA), a matched case-control study was conducted in Spain. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Three indices were used to evaluate the adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) (Predimed, Trichopoulou and Panagiotakos). Crude odds ratios (cOR) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Results were stratified by severity of SGA: moderate (percentiles 6–10), and severe (percentiles ≤5). For moderate, four or more points in the Predimed´s index was associated with a 41% reduction of having SGA compared with women with a score ≤3, aOR = 0.59 (95% CI 0.38–0.98); for severe, the reduction in risk was not statistically significant. Similar results were found when the other MD indexes were used. An intake of OO above 5 g/day was associated with a lower risk of SGA (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.34–0.85); statistical significance was observed for moderate SGA (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.30–0.96), but not for severe SGA (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.24–1.07), although the magnitude of ORs were quite similar. Adherence to a MD and OO intake is associated with a reduced risk of SGA. View Full-Text
Keywords: small for gestational age; infants; maternal nutrition; physiological phenomena; Mediterranean diet; olive oil small for gestational age; infants; maternal nutrition; physiological phenomena; Mediterranean diet; olive oil
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Martínez-Galiano, J.M.; Olmedo-Requena, R.; Barrios-Rodríguez, R.; Amezcua-Prieto, C.; Bueno-Cavanillas, A.; Salcedo-Bellido, I.; Jimenez-Moleon, J.J.; Delgado-Rodríguez, M. Effect of Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Olive Oil Intake during Pregnancy on Risk of Small for Gestational Age Infants. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1234.

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