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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091195

Muscle Loss in Chronic Liver Diseases: The Example of Nonalcoholic Liver Disease

EA4466 PRETRAM, Faculté de Pharmacie de Paris, USPC, 75006 Paris, France
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Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract

Recent publications highlight a frequent loss of muscle mass in chronic liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and its association with a poorer prognosis. In NAFLD, given the role of muscle in energy metabolism, muscle loss promotes disease progression. However, liver damage may be directly responsible of this muscle loss. Indeed, muscle homeostasis depends on the balance between peripheral availability and action of anabolic effectors and catabolic signals. Moreover, insulin resistance of protein metabolism only partially explains muscle loss during NAFLD. Interestingly, some data indicate specific alterations in the liver–muscle axis, particularly in situations such as excess fructose/sucrose consumption, associated with increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this context, the liver will be responsible for a decrease in the peripheral availability of anabolic factors such as hormones and amino acids, and for the production of catabolic effectors such as various hepatokines, methylglyoxal, and uric acid. A better understanding of these liver–muscle interactions could open new therapeutic opportunities for the management of NAFLD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; protein metabolism; insulin resistance; endoplasmic reticulum stress; hepatokine; amino acid; uric acid; methylglyoxal sarcopenia; protein metabolism; insulin resistance; endoplasmic reticulum stress; hepatokine; amino acid; uric acid; methylglyoxal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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De Bandt, J.-P.; Jegatheesan, P.; Tennoune-El-Hafaia, N. Muscle Loss in Chronic Liver Diseases: The Example of Nonalcoholic Liver Disease. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1195.

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