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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091188

Screening of Cytotoxicity and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Feijoa Extracts Using Genetically Modified Cell Models Targeting TLR2, TLR4 and NOD2 Pathways, and the Implication for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

1
Food Science, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
2
Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
3
Riddet Institute, New Zealand Centre of Research Excellence for Food Research, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract

Feijoa has been increasingly studied in the recent decade, while investigations into its bioactivities including anti-inflammatory activity are lacking. In this article, the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory properties of feijoa extracts, from flesh, peel and whole fruit, from four cultivars namely APOLLO, UNIQUE, OPAL STAR and WIKI TU are presented. Three inflammatory pathways, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), were investigated using genetically modified cell models namely HEK-Blue™ hTLR2, HEK-Blue™ hTLR4, NOD2-WT and NOD2-G908R. Results show that feijoa peel extract induced higher cytotoxicity than flesh and whole fruit extracts, and the APOLLO cultivar was the most anti-inflammatory among the four tested cultivars. The anti-inflammatory activity of feijoa flesh was detected only through the TLR2 pathway, and the activity of feijoa peel and whole fruit was evident mainly through the TLR2 and NOD2 pathways. Most notably, feijoa anti-inflammatory activity was superior to ibuprofen particularly through the TLR2 pathway, with significantly lower secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase IC50 concentrations (7.88, 12.81, 30.84 and 442.90 μg/mL for APOLLO flesh, peel, whole fruit extract and ibuprofen respectively). These findings indicate that feijoa has great potential to be used in the treatment and prevention of inflammation-related diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Feijoa fruit extracts; cultivar differences; cytotoxicity; anti-inflammatory pathway; TLR2; NOD2; inflammatory bowel disease Feijoa fruit extracts; cultivar differences; cytotoxicity; anti-inflammatory pathway; TLR2; NOD2; inflammatory bowel disease
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Peng, Y.; Bishop, K.S.; Ferguson, L.R.; Quek, S.Y. Screening of Cytotoxicity and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Feijoa Extracts Using Genetically Modified Cell Models Targeting TLR2, TLR4 and NOD2 Pathways, and the Implication for Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1188.

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