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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1061;

Mediterranean Diet and Bladder Cancer Risk in Italy

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, IRCCS CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute, 33081 Aviano, Italy
Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, Università degli Studi di Torino, CTO Hospital, 10126 Turin, Italy
Unit of Epidemiology, Istituto Tumori Fondazione Pascale IRCCS, 80131 Naples, Italy
Laboratory of Translational Oncology & Functional Genomics, Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Università di Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20157 Milan, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality and Health Outcomes)
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Previous studies have reported that Mediterranean diet is inversely related to the risk of several neoplasms; however, limited epidemiological data are available for bladder cancer. Thus, we examined the association between Mediterranean diet and this neoplasm in an Italian multicentric case-control study consisting of 690 bladder cancer cases and 665 controls. We assessed the adherence to the Mediterranean diet via a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), which represents the major characteristics of the Mediterranean diet and ranges from 0 to 9 (from minimal to maximal adherence, respectively). We derived odds ratios (ORs) of bladder cancer according to the MDS score from multiple logistic regression models, allowing for major confounding factors. The ORs of bladder cancer were 0.72 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.54–0.98) for MDS of 4–5 and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.47–0.93) for MDS of 6–9 (p for trend = 0.02) compared to MDS = 0–3. Results were similar in strata of sex, age, and education, while the risk appeared somewhat lower in never-smokers and patients with pT1–pT4 bladder carcinomas. Among individual components of the MDS, we observed inverse associations for greater consumption of legumes, vegetables, and fish. In our study, which was carried out on an Italian population, the higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was related to a lower risk of bladder cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; bladder cancer; case-control; prevention Mediterranean diet; bladder cancer; case-control; prevention
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bravi, F.; Spei, M.-E.; Polesel, J.; Di Maso, M.; Montella, M.; Ferraroni, M.; Serraino, D.; Libra, M.; Negri, E.; La Vecchia, C.; Turati, F. Mediterranean Diet and Bladder Cancer Risk in Italy. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1061.

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