Previous studies have reported that Mediterranean diet is inversely related to the risk of several neoplasms; however, limited epidemiological data are available for bladder cancer. Thus, we examined the association between Mediterranean diet and this neoplasm in an Italian multicentric case-control study consisting of 690 bladder cancer cases and 665 controls. We assessed the adherence to the Mediterranean diet via a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), which represents the major characteristics of the Mediterranean diet and ranges from 0 to 9 (from minimal to maximal adherence, respectively). We derived odds ratios (ORs) of bladder cancer according to the MDS score from multiple logistic regression models, allowing for major confounding factors. The ORs of bladder cancer were 0.72 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.54–0.98) for MDS of 4–5 and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.47–0.93) for MDS of 6–9 (p
for trend = 0.02) compared to MDS = 0–3. Results were similar in strata of sex, age, and education, while the risk appeared somewhat lower in never-smokers and patients with pT1–pT4 bladder carcinomas. Among individual components of the MDS, we observed inverse associations for greater consumption of legumes, vegetables, and fish. In our study, which was carried out on an Italian population, the higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was related to a lower risk of bladder cancer.
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