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Low Dietary Intakes of Essential Nutrients during Pregnancy in Vietnam

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6102, Australia
Department of Nutrition and Food, Faculty of Public Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Hai Phong University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hai Phong 180000, Vietnam
Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Thai Nguyen University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thai Nguyen 250000, Vietnam
Department of Sexual & Reproductive Health, United Nations Population Fund, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1025;
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
PDF [261 KB, uploaded 6 August 2018]


Inadequate intake of nutrients during pregnancy has been associated with poor pregnancy and infant outcomes; however, evidence remains limited in low-resource settings in Asia. This paper assessed food, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes among 1944 Vietnamese pregnant women. Dietary information was collected via an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were estimated using the Vietnamese food composition tables. The levels of nutrient intakes were evaluated against the Vietnamese recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) for pregnancy. The diet profiles were reported as means and percentages. The average daily food intakes across socio-demographic factors were compared using ANOVA, with adjustment for multiple comparisons by the Tukey–Kramer test. Rice, fruits, and vegetables were the main food sources consumed. The mean energy intake was 2004 kcal/day with 15.9%, 31.8%, and 52.2% of energy deriving from proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, respectively. Just over half of the women did not meet the RNI for total energy intake. The intakes of essential micronutrients including folate, calcium, iron, and zinc were below the RNI, and almost all pregnant women failed to meet the recommendations for these micronutrients. The associations of maternal age, education, and pre-pregnancy body mass index with nutrient intakes varied across the nutrient subgroups. Targeted programs are needed to improve nutrient intakes in Vietnamese pregnant women. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary intake; food intake; nutrients; macronutrients; micronutrients; pregnancy; Vietnam dietary intake; food intake; nutrients; macronutrients; micronutrients; pregnancy; Vietnam
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Nguyen, C.L.; Hoang, D.V.; Nguyen, P.T.H.; Ha, A.V.V.; Chu, T.K.; Pham, N.M.; Lee, A.H.; Duong, D.V.; Binns, C.W. Low Dietary Intakes of Essential Nutrients during Pregnancy in Vietnam. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1025.

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