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Eating Out-of-Home in Adult Residents in Shanghai and the Nutritional Differences among Dining Places

1
Department of Nutrition Hygiene, Division of Health Risk Factor Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China
2
Department of Food Hygiene, Division of Health Risk Factor Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China
3
Department of Molecular Biology for Public Health, Division of Non-communicable Diseases, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China
4
Putuo Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200333, China
5
Department of Vital Statistics, Division of Health Information, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070951
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
Background: With the rapid development of Shanghai’s economy, diet habits have undergone great changes. The study aimed to examine the situation of out-of-home (OH) eating in Shanghai adults and the nutrition characteristics of eating in different dining places, and to assess the social demographic determinants of eating OH. Method: Data was sourced from the Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) involving people aged 18 years or older in 2012–2013. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and three-day 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) were used to collect dietary intake data on how people eat out in a cross-sectional study of 1689 adults. OH food refers to the food prepared or consumed away from home. We define that people who eat at least one meal prepared away from home in each survey have a habit of eating outside. The multiple linear and logistic regression methods were used for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of eating OH and at restaurants was only 55.1% and 31.8%, respectively. There was an increase in energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, and iron intake while eating OH. Restaurant and company/school canteen consumption were both associated with an increase in daily total energy intake of 140 kcal and 91 kcal, and fat intake of 6.0 g and 4.3 g, respectively. However, eating at restaurants was associated with higher intake of 548 mg of sodium. However, no significant association was observed between eating at canteens and higher sodium intake. Conclusions: Eating OH related to a poor diet quality, and the diet quality was different between restaurant and canteen food. There may be a need for interventions to target residents’ overall dining-out behavior, particularly focusing on the consumption of restaurant food. View Full-Text
Keywords: out-of-home eating; dietary intake; restaurants; canteens; Shanghai China out-of-home eating; dietary intake; restaurants; canteens; Shanghai China
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Zang, J.; Luo, B.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, Z.; Wang, Z.; He, X.; Wang, W.; Guo, Y.; Chen, X.; Wang, C.; Guo, C.; Zou, S.; Jia, X.; Wu, F. Eating Out-of-Home in Adult Residents in Shanghai and the Nutritional Differences among Dining Places. Nutrients 2018, 10, 951.

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