Background: Diet is an important factor in secondary prevention of heart failure (HF) but there is still no consensus as to which dietary model should be adopted by this population. This systematic review aims to clarify the relationship between dietary patterns and secondary prevention in HF. Methods: We searched the Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases for studies with different dietary patterns and outcomes of secondary prevention in HF. No limitation was used in the search. Results: 1119 articles were identified, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Studies with Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Mediterranean, Hyperproteic and Low-carb diets were found. The DASH pattern showed improvement in cardiac function, functional capacity, blood pressure, oxidative stress and mortality. The Mediterranean diet had a correlation with inflammation, quality of life and cardiac function but just on cross-sectional studies. Regarding the Hyperproteic and Low-carb diets only one study was found with each pattern and both were able to improve functional capacity in patients with HF. Conclusions: DASH pattern may have benefits in the secondary prevention of HF. The Mediterranean diet demonstrated positive correlation with factors of secondary prevention of HF but need more RCTs and cohort studies to confirm these effects. In addition, the Hyperproteic and Low-carb diets, despite the lack of studies, also demonstrated positive effects on the functional capacity in patients with HF.
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