Dietary Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
AbstractBackground. A clear evidence on the benefits of reducing salt in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still lacking. Salt restriction in CKD may allow better control of blood pressure (BP) as shown in a previous systematic review while the effect on proteinuria reduction remains poorly investigated. Methods. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of low versus high salt intake in adult patients with non-dialysis CKD on change in BP, proteinuria and albuminuria. Results. Eleven RCTs were selected and included information about 738 CKD patients (Stage 1–4); urinary sodium excretion was 104 mEq/day (95%CI, 76–131) and 179 mEq/day (95%CI, 165–193) in low- and high-sodium intake subgroups, respectively, with a mean difference of −80 mEq/day (95%CI from −107 to −53; p <0.001). Overall, mean differences in clinic and ambulatory systolic BP were −4.9 mmHg (95%CI from −6.8 to −3.1, p <0.001) and −5.9 mmHg (95%CI from −9.5 to −2.3, p <0.001), respectively, while clinic and ambulatory diastolic BP were −2.3 mmHg (95%CI from −3.5 to −1.2, p <0.001) and −3.0 mmHg (95%CI from −4.3 to −1.7; p <0.001), respectively. Mean differences in proteinuria and albuminuria were −0.39 g/day (95%CI from −0.55 to −0.22, p <0.001) and −0.05 g/day (95%CI from −0.09 to −0.01, p = 0.013). Conclusion. Moderate salt restriction significantly reduces BP and proteinuria/albuminuria in patients with CKD (Stage 1–4). View Full-Text
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Garofalo, C.; Borrelli, S.; Provenzano, M.; De Stefano, T.; Vita, C.; Chiodini, P.; Minutolo, R.; Nicola, L.D.; Conte, G. Dietary Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Nutrients 2018, 10, 732.
Garofalo C, Borrelli S, Provenzano M, De Stefano T, Vita C, Chiodini P, Minutolo R, Nicola LD, Conte G. Dietary Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Nutrients. 2018; 10(6):732.Chicago/Turabian Style
Garofalo, Carlo; Borrelli, Silvio; Provenzano, Michele; De Stefano, Toni; Vita, Carlo; Chiodini, Paolo; Minutolo, Roberto; Nicola, Luca D.; Conte, Giuseppe. 2018. "Dietary Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials." Nutrients 10, no. 6: 732.