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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Haem, Non-Haem, and Total Iron Intake on Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components: A Population-Based Study

1
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira César, São Paulo, SP 01246-904, Brazil
2
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira César, São Paulo, SP 01246-904, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030314
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
Studies suggest that haem, non-haem iron and total iron intake may be related to non-communicable diseases, especially metabolic syndrome. This study was undertaken to investigate the association of haem, non-haem iron and total iron intake with metabolic syndrome and its components. A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed in 2008, enrolling 591 adults and elderly adults living in São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary intake was measured by two 24 h dietary recalls. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of at least three of the following: hypertension, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and central obesity. The association between different types of dietary iron and metabolic syndrome was evaluated using multiple logistic regression. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher haem iron intake was positively associated with metabolic syndrome and with elevated triglyceride levels. A higher total iron intake was positively associated with hyperglycaemia. Non-haem iron intake was positively associated with hyperglycaemia in the fourth quintile. In conclusion, this study suggests that the different types of dietary iron are associated with metabolic syndrome, elevated triglyceride levels and hyperglycaemia. In addition, it emphasises the importance of investigating the roles of dietary iron in health outcomes, since its consumption may have different impacts on health. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron intake; epidemiologic surveys; nutritional assessment; food intake; metabolic syndrome iron intake; epidemiologic surveys; nutritional assessment; food intake; metabolic syndrome
MDPI and ACS Style

Dos Santos Vieira, D.A.; Hermes Sales, C.; Galvão Cesar, C.L.; Marchioni, D.M.; Fisberg, R.M. Influence of Haem, Non-Haem, and Total Iron Intake on Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components: A Population-Based Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 314.

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