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Open AccessArticle

Sodium and Potassium Consumption in a Semi-Urban Area in Peru: Evaluation of a Population-Based 24-Hour Urine Collection

1
Center of Excellence in Chronic Diseases (CRONICAS), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 18, Peru
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK
3
School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima 09, Peru
4
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 31, Peru
5
Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
6
Área de Investigación y Desarrollo, Asociación Benéfica PRISMA, Lima 32, Peru
7
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020245
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
Despite the negative effects of high sodium and low potassium consumption on cardiovascular health, their consumption has not been quantified in sites undergoing urbanization. We aimed to determine the sodium and potassium consumption in a semi-urban area in Peru with a cross-sectional study. 24-h urine samples were collected. The outcomes were mean consumption of sodium and potassium, as well as adherence to their consumption recommendation: <2 g/day and ≥3.51 g/day, respectively. Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify socio-economic and clinical variables associated with the consumption recommendations of 602 participants, complete urine samples were found in 409: mean age of participants was 45.7 (standard deviation (SD): 16.2) years and 56% were women. The mean sodium and potassium consumption was 4.4 (SD: 2.1) and 2.0 (SD: 1.2) g/day. The sodium and potassium recommendation was met by 7.1% and 13.7% of the study sample; none of the participants met both recommendations. People not adherent to the sodium recommendation had higher diastolic (73.1 mmHg vs. 68.2 mmHg, p = 0.015) and systolic (113.1 mmHg vs. 106.3 mmHg, p = 0.047) blood pressure than those who comply with the recommendation. Public health actions ought to be implemented in areas undergoing urbanization to improve sodium and potassium consumption at the population level. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium chloride; sodium; dietary sodium; potassium; dietary potassium; blood pressure; Peru sodium chloride; sodium; dietary sodium; potassium; dietary potassium; blood pressure; Peru
MDPI and ACS Style

Carrillo-Larco, R.M.; Saavedra-Garcia, L.; Miranda, J.J.; Sacksteder, K.A.; Diez-Canseco, F.; Gilman, R.H.; Bernabe-Ortiz, A. Sodium and Potassium Consumption in a Semi-Urban Area in Peru: Evaluation of a Population-Based 24-Hour Urine Collection. Nutrients 2018, 10, 245.

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