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Open AccessArticle

Claimed Effects, Outcome Variables and Methods of Measurement for Health Claims on Foods Related to Vision Proposed Under Regulation (EC) 1924/2006

1
The Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology, Department of Food and Drug, University of Parma, 43125 Parma, Italy
2
Department of Medicine and Surgery, Clinical Psychology Unit, University of Parma, 43125 Parma, Italy
3
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Liver Research Center, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste, Italy
4
Department of Medicine and Surgery, Division of Endocrinology, University of Parma, 43125 Parma, Italy
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The Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria of Parma, 43125 Parma, Italy
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Laboratory of Probiogenomics, Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, 43125 Parma, Italy
7
Department of Medicine and Surgery, Sport and Exercise Medicine Centre (SEM), University of Parma, 43125 Parma, Italy
8
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Building Clinica Medica Generale, 43125 Parma, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors equally contributed to the study.
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020211
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
Adequate visual function has a strong impact on the quality of life of people. Several foods and food components have been hypothesized to play a role in the maintenance of normal visual function and in the prevention of eye diseases. Some of these foods/food components have been the object of a request of authorization for use of health claims under Articles 13(5) or 14 of the Regulation (EC) 1924/2006. Most of these requests have received a negative opinion from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) due to the choice of inappropriate outcome variables (OVs) and/or methods of measurement (MMs) applied in the studies used to substantiate the claims. This manuscript refers to the collection, collation and critical analysis of OVs and MMs related to vision. Guidance document and requests for authorization of health claims were used to collect OVs and MMs related to vision. A literature review was performed to critically analyse OVs and MMs, with the aim of defining their appropriateness in the context of a specific claimed effect related to vision. The results highlight the importance of adequate choices of OVs and MMs for an effective substantiation of claims related to visual function. View Full-Text
Keywords: health claim; outcome variable; method of measurement; diet; vision health claim; outcome variable; method of measurement; diet; vision
MDPI and ACS Style

Martini, D.; Innocenti, A.; Cosentino, C.; Bedogni, G.; Angelino, D.; Biasini, B.; Zavaroni, I.; Ventura, M.; Galli, D.; Mirandola, P.; Vitale, M.; Dei Cas, A.; Bonadonna, R.C.; Passeri, G.; Pruneti, C.; Del Rio, D. Claimed Effects, Outcome Variables and Methods of Measurement for Health Claims on Foods Related to Vision Proposed Under Regulation (EC) 1924/2006. Nutrients 2018, 10, 211.

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