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Open AccessArticle

Association between Spatial Access to Food Outlets, Frequency of Grocery Shopping, and Objectively-Assessed and Self-Reported Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

1
Department of Nutrition, School of Health and Human Sciences, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27412, USA
2
Department of Public Health, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834, USA
3
Department of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, School of Human Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121974
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition)
Because supermarkets are a critical part of the community food environment, the purpose of this paper is to examine the association between accessibility to the supermarket where participants were surveyed, frequency of shopping at the supermarket, and self-reported and objectively-assessed fruit and vegetable consumption. Accessibility was assessed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) measured distance and multiple versions of the modified Retail Food Environment Index (mRFEI), including a localized road network buffer version. Frequency of shopping was assessed using self-report. The National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable screener was used to calculate daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Skin carotenoids were assessed using the “Veggie Meter™” which utilizes reflection spectroscopy to non-invasively assess skin carotenoids as an objective measure of fruit and vegetable consumption. Bivariate and multivariable statistics were used to examine the associations in RStudio. There was a positive association between skin carotenoids and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC) and mRFEI scores, suggesting that WIC participation and a healthier food environment were associated with objectively-assessed fruit and vegetable consumption (skin carotenoids). Future research should examine these associations using longitudinal study designs and larger sample sizes. View Full-Text
Keywords: food environment; dietary measurement; Geographic Information Systems; skin carotenoids food environment; dietary measurement; Geographic Information Systems; skin carotenoids
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MDPI and ACS Style

McGuirt, J.T.; Jilcott Pitts, S.B.; Gustafson, A. Association between Spatial Access to Food Outlets, Frequency of Grocery Shopping, and Objectively-Assessed and Self-Reported Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1974.

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