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Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111725

Short-Term Effects of Healthy Eating Pattern Cycling on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Pooled Results from Two Randomized Controlled Trials

1
Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
3
Anschutz Health and Wellness Center and Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045 USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
PDF [474 KB, uploaded 10 November 2018]

Abstract

Adherence to healthy eating patterns (HEPs) is often short-lived and can lead to repetitive attempts of adopting—but not maintaining—HEPs. We assessed effects of adopting, abandoning, and readopting HEPs (HEP cycling) on cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD-RF). We hypothesized that HEP cycling would improve, worsen, and again improve CVD-RF. Data were retrospectively pooled for secondary analyses from two randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trials (n = 60, 52 ± 2 years, 30.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2) which included two 5–6 week HEP interventions (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-style or Mediterranean-style) separated by a four-week unrestricted eating period. Ambulatory and fasting blood pressures (BP), fasting serum lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin were measured before and during the last week of HEP interventions. Fasting systolic BP and total cholesterol decreased (−6 ± 1 mm Hg and −19 ± 3 mg/dL, respectively, p < 0.05), returned to baseline, then decreased again (−5 ± 1 mm Hg and −13 ± 3 mg/dL, respectively, p < 0.05) when adopting, abandoning, and readopting a HEP; magnitude of changes did not differ. Ambulatory and fasting diastolic BP and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations followed similar patterns; glucose and insulin remained unchanged. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased with initial adoption but not readoption (−13 ± 3 and −6 ± 3, respectively, interaction p = 0.020). Healthcare professionals should encourage individuals to consistently consume a HEP for cardiovascular health but also encourage them to try again if a first attempt is unsuccessful or short-lived.
Keywords: healthy eating pattern; dietary cycling; Mediterranean-style eating pattern; Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating patter; dietary guidance; overweight and obese adults healthy eating pattern; dietary cycling; Mediterranean-style eating pattern; Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating patter; dietary guidance; overweight and obese adults
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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O'Connor, L.; Li, J.; Sayer, R.D.; Hennessy, J.E.; Campbell, W. Short-Term Effects of Healthy Eating Pattern Cycling on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Pooled Results from Two Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1725.

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