Depressive Symptoms and Vegetarian Diets: Results from the Constances Cohort
Faculté de Médecine, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris, France
AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Ouest, Service de Psychiatrie de l’adulte et du sujet âgé, 75015 Paris, France
Inserm, U894, Centre Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, 75014 Paris, France
AP-HP, Nutrition Department, Georges Pompidou european Hospital, Centre Spécialisé Obésité IdF, 75015 Paris, France
Inserm, UMR 1153 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Sorbonne Paris Cité Centre (CRESS), METHODS Team, 75004 Paris, France
Inserm (U1153), Inra, Cnam, University of Paris 5, 7 & 13, 75006 Paris, France
Inserm, Population-based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, UMS 011, 94800 Villejuif, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111695
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Mental Health)
The association between depressive symptoms and vegetarian diets is controversial. This study examines the cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and vegetarian diets while controlling for potential confounders. Among 90,380 subjects from the population-based Constances cohort, depressive symptoms were defined by a score ≥19 on the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale and diet types (omnivorous, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan) were determined with a food frequency questionnaire. Associations between depressive symptoms and diet were estimated through logistic regressions adjusting for socio-demographics, other foods, alcohol and tobacco consumption, physical activity and health-related concerns; specificity analyses considered the exclusion of any other food group. Depressive symptoms were associated with pesco-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets in multivariable analyses (Odds-Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.43 [1.19–1.72] and 1.36 [1.09–1.70], respectively), especially in case of low legumes intake (p for interaction < 0.0001), as well as with the exclusion of any food group (e.g., 1.37 [1.24–1.52], 1.40 [1.31–1.50], 1.71 [1.49–1.97] for meat, fish and vegetables exclusion, respectively). Regardless of food type, the Odds-Ratio of depressive symptoms gradually increased with the number of excluded food groups (p for trend < 0.0001). Depressive symptoms are associated with the exclusion of any food group from the diet, including but not restricted to animal products.