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Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111695

Depressive Symptoms and Vegetarian Diets: Results from the Constances Cohort

1
Faculté de Médecine, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris, France
2
AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Ouest, Service de Psychiatrie de l’adulte et du sujet âgé, 75015 Paris, France
3
Inserm, U894, Centre Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, 75014 Paris, France
4
AP-HP, Nutrition Department, Georges Pompidou european Hospital, Centre Spécialisé Obésité IdF, 75015 Paris, France
5
Inserm, UMR 1153 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Sorbonne Paris Cité Centre (CRESS), METHODS Team, 75004 Paris, France
6
Inserm (U1153), Inra, Cnam, University of Paris 5, 7 & 13, 75006 Paris, France
7
Inserm, Population-based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, UMS 011, 94800 Villejuif, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Mental Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [419 KB, uploaded 6 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

The association between depressive symptoms and vegetarian diets is controversial. This study examines the cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and vegetarian diets while controlling for potential confounders. Among 90,380 subjects from the population-based Constances cohort, depressive symptoms were defined by a score ≥19 on the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale and diet types (omnivorous, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan) were determined with a food frequency questionnaire. Associations between depressive symptoms and diet were estimated through logistic regressions adjusting for socio-demographics, other foods, alcohol and tobacco consumption, physical activity and health-related concerns; specificity analyses considered the exclusion of any other food group. Depressive symptoms were associated with pesco-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets in multivariable analyses (Odds-Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.43 [1.19–1.72] and 1.36 [1.09–1.70], respectively), especially in case of low legumes intake (p for interaction < 0.0001), as well as with the exclusion of any food group (e.g., 1.37 [1.24–1.52], 1.40 [1.31–1.50], 1.71 [1.49–1.97] for meat, fish and vegetables exclusion, respectively). Regardless of food type, the Odds-Ratio of depressive symptoms gradually increased with the number of excluded food groups (p for trend < 0.0001). Depressive symptoms are associated with the exclusion of any food group from the diet, including but not restricted to animal products. View Full-Text
Keywords: depressive symptoms; vegetarian diet; chronic disease depressive symptoms; vegetarian diet; chronic disease
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Matta, J.; Czernichow, S.; Kesse-Guyot, E.; Hoertel, N.; Limosin, F.; Goldberg, M.; Zins, M.; Lemogne, C. Depressive Symptoms and Vegetarian Diets: Results from the Constances Cohort. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1695.

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