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Open AccessArticle

The Glucose-Lowering Effect of Foxtail Millet in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Self-Controlled Clinical Trial

1
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China
2
Key Laboratory of Plant Protein and Grain Processing, National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Fruits and Vegetables, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
3
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
4
School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101509
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Grains and Human Health)
Foxtail millet has relatively low starch digestibility and moderate glycemic index compared to other grains. Since there are still no clinical researches regarding its long-term effect on blood glucose, this self-controlled study was conducted to investigate the glucose-lowering effect of foxtail millet in free-living subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Fifty g/day of foxtail millet was provided to enrolled subjects throughout 12 weeks and the related clinical parameters were investigated at week 0, 6 and 12, respectively. After 12 weeks of foxtail millet intervention, the mean fasting blood glucose of the subjects decreased from 5.7 ± 0.9 mmol/L to 5.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L (p < 0.001) and the mean 2 h-glucose decreased from 10.2 ± 2.6 mmol/L to 9.4 ± 2.3 mmol/L (p = 0.003). The intake of foxtail millet caused a significant increase of serum leptin (p = 0.012), decrease of insulin resistance (p = 0.007), and marginal reduction of inflammation. Furthermore, a sex-dependent difference in glucose-lowering effect of foxtail millet was observed in this study. Foxtail millet could improve the glycemic control in free-living subjects with IGT, suggesting that increasing the consumption of foxtail millet might be beneficial to individuals suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary intervention; whole foxtail millet; blood glucose; impaired glucose tolerance dietary intervention; whole foxtail millet; blood glucose; impaired glucose tolerance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ren, X.; Yin, R.; Hou, D.; Xue, Y.; Zhang, M.; Diao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, J.; Hu, J.; Hu, X.; Shen, Q. The Glucose-Lowering Effect of Foxtail Millet in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Self-Controlled Clinical Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1509.

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