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Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101500 (registering DOI)

Improved Diet Quality and Nutrient Adequacy in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Obesity after a Lifestyle Intervention

1
Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Physiology, University of Navarra. C/ Irunlarrea, 1. 31008 Pamplona, Spain
2
IdiSNA, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra. C/Irunlarrea, 3. 31008 Pamplona, Spain
3
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine-Clínica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra. C/ Irunlarrea, 1. 31008 Pamplona, Spain
4
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn), Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III. Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5. 28029 Madrid, Spain
5
Paediatric Endocrinology Unit, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra. C/Irunlarrea, 3. 31008 Pamplona, Spain
6
Paediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Paediatrics. Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Av. Pío XII, 36. 31008 Pamplona, Spain
I.Z. and A.M. contributed equally to this work and are the corresponding authors.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 7 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality and Health Outcomes)
Full-Text   |   PDF [980 KB, uploaded 13 October 2018]   |  

Abstract

High rates of childhood obesity require integral treatment with lifestyle modifications that achieve weight loss. We evaluated a lifestyle intervention on nutrient adequacy and diet quality in children and adolescents with abdominal obesity. A randomized controlled trial was performed on 107 participants, assigned either to a usual care group or to an intensive care group that followed a moderate hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and received nutritional education. Intake adequacy was evaluated using Dietary Reference Intakes and diet quality through the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A), the Healthy Lifestyle Diet-Index (HLD-I) and the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED). Both groups achieved a significant reduction in BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), glucose and total cholesterol levels. Intake of Calcium, Iodine and vitamin D were higher in the intensive care group, with enhanced compliance with recommendations. Higher dietary scores were associated with lower micronutrient inadequacy. DQI-A and HLD-I were significantly higher in the intensive care group vs. usual care group after the treatment. In conclusion, we observed that an intensive lifestyle intervention was able to reduce BMI-SDS in children with abdominal obesity. Furthermore, participants significantly improved dietary indices getting closer to the nutritional recommendations. Therefore, these diet quality indices could be a valid indicator to evaluate micronutrient adequacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary intervention; childhood obesity; Mediterranean diet; nutritional requirements dietary intervention; childhood obesity; Mediterranean diet; nutritional requirements
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Ojeda-Rodríguez, A.; Zazpe, I.; Morell-Azanza, L.; Chueca, M.J.; Azcona-sanjulian, M.C.; Marti, A. Improved Diet Quality and Nutrient Adequacy in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Obesity after a Lifestyle Intervention. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1500.

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