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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Carotenoid Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study from Vietnam

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6102, Australia
Thai Nguyen University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thai Nguyen 250000, Vietnam
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 70;
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
The incidence of prostate cancer has increased in Vietnam, but there have been few studies of the risk factors associated with this change. This retrospective case-control study investigated the relation of the intake of carotenoids and their food sources to prostate cancer risk. A sample of 652 participants (244 incident prostate cancer patients, aged 64–75 years, and 408 age frequency-matched controls) were recruited in Ho Chi Minh City during 2013–2015. The habitual diet was ascertained with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and other factors including demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed via face-to-face interviews by trained nurses. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. The risk of prostate cancer decreased with increasing intakes of lycopene, tomatoes, and carrots; the respective ORs (95% CIs) were 0.46 (0.27, 0.77), 0.39 (0.23, 0.66), and 0.35 (0.21, 0.58), when comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of intake (p for trend < 0.01). No statistically significant associations were found for the intake of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and major food sources of carotenoids. In conclusion, Vietnamese men with a higher intake of lycopene, tomatoes, and carrots may have a lower risk of prostate cancer. However, large prospective studies are needed in this population to confirm this finding. View Full-Text
Keywords: case-control study; carotenoids; epidemiology; prostate cancer; Vietnam case-control study; carotenoids; epidemiology; prostate cancer; Vietnam
MDPI and ACS Style

Van Hoang, D.; Pham, N.M.; Lee, A.H.; Tran, D.N.; Binns, C.W. Dietary Carotenoid Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study from Vietnam. Nutrients 2018, 10, 70.

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