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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(9), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9090874

On-Board Ortho-Rectification for Images Based on an FPGA

1
Guangxi Key Laboratory for Spatial Information and Geomatics, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
2
College of Precision Instrument and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
3
The Center for Remote Sensing, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract

The traditional ortho-rectification technique for remotely sensed (RS) images, which is performed on the basis of a ground image processing platform, has been unable to meet timeliness or near timeliness requirements. To solve this problem, this paper presents research on an ortho-rectification technique based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform that can be implemented on board spacecraft for (near) real-time processing. The proposed FPGA-based ortho-rectification method contains three modules, i.e., a memory module, a coordinate transformation module (including the transformation from geodetic coordinates to photo coordinates, and the transformation from photo coordinates to scanning coordinates), and an interpolation module. Two datasets, aerial images located in central Denver, Colorado, USA, and an aerial image from the example dataset of ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2, are used to validate the processing speed and accuracy. Compared to traditional ortho-rectification technology, the throughput from the proposed FPGA-based platform and the personal computer (PC)-based platform are 11,182.3 kilopixels per second and 2582.9 kilopixels per second, respectively. This means that the proposed FPGA-based platform is 4.3 times faster than the PC-based platform for processing the same RS images. In addition, the root-mean-square errors of the planimetric coordinates φX and φY and the distance φS are 1.09 m, 1.61 m, and 1.93 m, respectively, which can meet the requirements of correction accuracy in practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: ortho-rectification; field programmable gate array (FPGA); hardware implementation ortho-rectification; field programmable gate array (FPGA); hardware implementation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhou, G.Z.R.Z.N.L.J.H.X.; Zhang, R.; Liu, N.; Huang, J.; Zhou, X. On-Board Ortho-Rectification for Images Based on an FPGA. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 874.

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