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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(6), 560;

Underwater Topography Detection in Coastal Areas Using Fully Polarimetric SAR Data

Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
National Ocean Technology Center, Tianjin 300112, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xiaofeng Yang, Xiaofeng Li, Ferdinando Nunziata, Alexis Mouche and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 4 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing with Synthetic Aperture Radar)
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Fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can provide detailed information on scattering mechanisms that could enable the target or structure to be identified. This paper presents a method to detect underwater topography in coastal areas using high resolution fully polarimetric SAR data, while less prior information is required. The method is based on the shoaling and refraction of long surface gravity waves as they propagate shoreward. First, the surface scattering component is obtained by polarization decomposition. Then, wave fields are retrieved from the two-dimensional (2D) spectra by the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). Finally, shallow water depths are estimated from the dispersion relation. Applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology are tested by using C-band fine quad-polarization mode RADARSAT-2 SAR data over the near-shore area of the Hainan province, China. By comparing with the values from an official electronic navigational chart (ENC), the estimated water depths are in good agreement with them. The average relative error of the detected results from the scattering mechanisms based method and single polarization SAR data are 9.73% and 11.53% respectively. The validation results indicate that the scattering mechanisms based methodology is more effective than only using the single polarization SAR data for underwater topography detection, and will inspire further research on underwater topography detection with fully polarimetric SAR data. View Full-Text
Keywords: shallow water; swell waves; water depth; dispersion relationship; quad-polarization; Bragg scattering shallow water; swell waves; water depth; dispersion relationship; quad-polarization; Bragg scattering

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bian, X.; Shao, Y.; Tian, W.; Wang, S.; Zhang, C.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Z. Underwater Topography Detection in Coastal Areas Using Fully Polarimetric SAR Data. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 560.

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