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Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Carbon Flux and Soil Moisture in Wetlands Applying Sentinel-1 Data

1
Remote Sensing Centre, Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Modzelewskiego 27, 02-679 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Geoinformatics, Cartography and Remote Sensing, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Javier Bustamante, Alfredo R. Huete, Patricia Kandus, Ricardo Díaz-Delgado, Nicolas Baghdadi and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(9), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8090756
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 30 August 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What can Remote Sensing Do for the Conservation of Wetlands?)
The objectives of the study were to determine the spatial rate of CO2 flux (Net Ecosystem Exchange) and soil moisture in a wetland ecosystem applying Sentinel-1 IW (Interferometric Wide) data of VH (Vertical Transmit/Horizontal Receive—cross polarization) and VV (Vertical Transmit/Vertical Receive—like polarization) polarization. In-situ measurements of carbon flux, soil moisture, and LAI (Leaf Area Index) were carried out over the Biebrza Wetland in north-eastern Poland. The impact of soil moisture and LAI on backscattering coefficient (σ°) calculated from Sentinel-1 data showed that LAI dominates the influence on σ° when soil moisture is low. The models for soil moisture have been derived for wetland vegetation habitat types applying VH polarization (R2 = 0.70 to 0.76). The vegetation habitats: reeds, sedge-moss, sedges, grass-herbs, and grass were classified using combined one Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) and three TerraSAR-X (TSX) ScanSAR VV data. The model for the assessment of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) has been developed based on the assumption that soil moisture and biomass represented by LAI have an influence on it. The σ° VH and σ° VV describe soil moisture and LAI, and have been the input to the NEE model. The model, created for classified habitats, is as follows: NEE = f (σ° Sentinel-1 VH, σ° Sentinel-1 VV). Reasonably good predictions of NEE have been achieved for classified habitats (R2 = 0.51 to 0.58). The developed model has been used for mapping spatial and temporal distribution of NEE over Biebrza wetland habitat types. Eventually, emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere (NEE positive) has been noted when soil moisture (SM) and biomass were low. This study demonstrates the importance of the capability of Sentinel-1 microwave data to calculate soil moisture and estimate NEE with all-weather acquisition conditions, offering an important advantage for frequent wetlands monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: NEE; backscattering coefficient; LAI; soil moisture NEE; backscattering coefficient; LAI; soil moisture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Budzynska, M.; Tomaszewska, M.; Malinska, A.; Gatkowska, M.; Bartold, M.; Malek, I. Assessment of Carbon Flux and Soil Moisture in Wetlands Applying Sentinel-1 Data. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 756.

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