Current predefined architectures for deep learning are computationally very heavy and use tens of millions of parameters. Thus, computational costs may be prohibitive for many experimental or technological setups. We developed an ad hoc architecture for the classification of multispectral images using deep learning techniques. The architecture, called 3DeepM, is composed of 3D filter banks especially designed for the extraction of spatial-spectral features in multichannel images. The new architecture has been tested on a sample of 12210 multispectral images of seedless table grape varieties: Autumn Royal, Crimson Seedless, Itum4, Itum5
. 3DeepM was able to classify 100% of the images and obtained the best overall results in terms of accuracy, number of classes, number of parameters and training time compared to similar work. In addition, this paper presents a flexible and reconfigurable computer vision system designed for the acquisition of multispectral images in the range of 400 nm to 1000 nm. The vision system enabled the creation of the first dataset consisting of 12210 37-channel multispectral images (12 VIS + 25 IR) of five seedless table grape varieties that have been used to validate the 3DeepM architecture. Compared to predefined classification architectures such as AlexNet, ResNet or ad hoc architectures with a very high number of parameters, 3DeepM shows the best classification performance despite using 130-fold fewer parameters than the architecture to which it was compared. 3DeepM can be used in a multitude of applications that use multispectral images, such as remote sensing or medical diagnosis. In addition, the small number of parameters of 3DeepM make it ideal for application in online classification systems aboard autonomous robots or unmanned vehicles.
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