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Article

Estimation of Water Coverage in Permanent and Temporary Shallow Lakes and Wetlands by Combining Remote Sensing Techniques and Genetic Programming: Application to the Mediterranean Basin of the Iberian Peninsula

1
Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2
Department of Applied Physics, Regional Development Institute, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario S/N, 02017 Albacete, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mingming Jia
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(4), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040652
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2021 / Accepted: 8 February 2021 / Published: 11 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Wetlands)
This work aims to validate the wide use of an algorithm developed using genetic programing (GP) techniques allowing to discern between water and non-water pixels using the near infrared band and different thresholds. A total of 34 wetlands and shallow lakes of 18 ecological types were used for validation. These include marshes, salt ponds, and saline and freshwater, temporary and permanent shallow lakes. Furthermore, based on the spectral matching between Landsat and Sentinel-2 sensors, this methodology was applied to Sentinel-2 imagery, improving the spatial and temporal resolution. When compared to other techniques, GP showed better accuracy (over 85% in most cases) and acceptable kappa values in the estimation of water pixels (κ ≥ 0.7) in 10 of the 18 assayed ecological types evaluated with Landsat-7 and Sentinel-2 imagery. The improvements were especially achieved for temporary lakes and wetlands, where existing algorithms were scarcely reliable. This shows that GP algorithms applied to remote sensing satellite imagery can be a valuable tool to monitor water coverage in wetlands and shallow lakes where multiple factors cause a low resolution by commonly used water indices. This allows the reconstruction of hydrological series showing their hydrological behaviors during the last three decades, being useful to predict how their hydrological pattern may behave under future global change scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: wetlands and shallow lakes; temporary and permanent lakes; Mediterranean; remote sensing; Landsat-7; Sentinel-2; genetic programming; water cover detection wetlands and shallow lakes; temporary and permanent lakes; Mediterranean; remote sensing; Landsat-7; Sentinel-2; genetic programming; water cover detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Doña, C.; Morant, D.; Picazo, A.; Rochera, C.; Sánchez, J.M.; Camacho, A. Estimation of Water Coverage in Permanent and Temporary Shallow Lakes and Wetlands by Combining Remote Sensing Techniques and Genetic Programming: Application to the Mediterranean Basin of the Iberian Peninsula. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 652. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040652

AMA Style

Doña C, Morant D, Picazo A, Rochera C, Sánchez JM, Camacho A. Estimation of Water Coverage in Permanent and Temporary Shallow Lakes and Wetlands by Combining Remote Sensing Techniques and Genetic Programming: Application to the Mediterranean Basin of the Iberian Peninsula. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(4):652. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040652

Chicago/Turabian Style

Doña, Carolina, Daniel Morant, Antonio Picazo, Carlos Rochera, Juan Manuel Sánchez, and Antonio Camacho. 2021. "Estimation of Water Coverage in Permanent and Temporary Shallow Lakes and Wetlands by Combining Remote Sensing Techniques and Genetic Programming: Application to the Mediterranean Basin of the Iberian Peninsula" Remote Sensing 13, no. 4: 652. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040652

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