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Acoustic Mapping of Submerged Stone Age Sites—A HALD Approach

Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, 1250 Copenhagen, Denmark
Culture & Preservation, 9690 Fjerritslev, Denmark
Department of Social, Cultural and Justice Studies, The University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, TN 37403, USA
The Archaeological Research Cooperative Inc., Tallahassee, FL 32305, USA
SEARCH Inc., Tallahassee, FL 32305, USA
Acoustics & Environmental HydroAcoustics Lab, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Faculty of Creative Arts, Technologies and Science, University of Bedfordshire, Luton LU1 3JU, UK
Unterwasserarchäologie/Dendrochronologie Zürich, Amt für Stadtebau, 8008 Zürich, Switzerland
East Jutland Museum, 8900 Randers, Denmark
Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel
Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
The Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel
Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
Shanghai Acoustics Laboratory, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201815, China
Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Key Laboratory for Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, The Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China
Länsstyrelsen i Blekinge län, 371 86 Karlskrona, Sweden
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences (DiSVA), Università Politecnica delle Marche (UNIVPM), 60131 Ancona, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carl Philipp Lipo and Magaly Koch
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(3), 445;
Received: 1 December 2020 / Revised: 6 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Archaeology)
Acoustic response from lithics knapped by humans has been demonstrated to facilitate effective detection of submerged Stone Age sites exposed on the seafloor or embedded within its sediments. This phenomenon has recently enabled the non-invasive detection of several hitherto unknown submerged Stone Age sites, as well as the registration of acoustic responses from already known localities. Investigation of the acoustic-response characteristics of knapped lithics, which appear not to be replicated in naturally cracked lithic pieces (geofacts), is presently on-going through laboratory experiments and finite element (FE) modelling of high-resolution 3D-scanned pieces. Experimental work is also being undertaken, employing chirp sub-bottom systems (reflection seismic) on known sites in marine areas and inland water bodies. Fieldwork has already yielded positive results in this initial stage of development of an optimised Human-Altered Lithic Detection (HALD) method for mapping submerged Stone Age sites. This paper reviews the maritime archaeological perspectives of this promising approach, which potentially facilitates new and improved practice, summarizes existing data, and reports on the present state of development. Its focus is not reflection seismics as such, but a useful resonance phenomenon induced by the use of high-resolution reflection seismic systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: acoustic mapping; cultural heritage management; lithic artefacts; underwater archaeology; underwater survey acoustic mapping; cultural heritage management; lithic artefacts; underwater archaeology; underwater survey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grøn, O.; Boldreel, L.O.; Smith, M.F.; Joy, S.; Tayong Boumda, R.; Mäder, A.; Bleicher, N.; Madsen, B.; Cvikel, D.; Nilsson, B.; Sjöström, A.; Galili, E.; Nørmark, E.; Hu, C.; Ren, Q.; Blondel, P.; Gao, X.; Stråkendal, P.; Dell’Anno, A. Acoustic Mapping of Submerged Stone Age Sites—A HALD Approach. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 445.

AMA Style

Grøn O, Boldreel LO, Smith MF, Joy S, Tayong Boumda R, Mäder A, Bleicher N, Madsen B, Cvikel D, Nilsson B, Sjöström A, Galili E, Nørmark E, Hu C, Ren Q, Blondel P, Gao X, Stråkendal P, Dell’Anno A. Acoustic Mapping of Submerged Stone Age Sites—A HALD Approach. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(3):445.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grøn, Ole, Lars O. Boldreel, Morgan F. Smith, Shawn Joy, Rostand Tayong Boumda, Andreas Mäder, Niels Bleicher, Bo Madsen, Deborah Cvikel, Björn Nilsson, Arne Sjöström, Ehud Galili, Egon Nørmark, Changqing Hu, Qunyan Ren, Philippe Blondel, Xing Gao, Petra Stråkendal, and Antonio Dell’Anno. 2021. "Acoustic Mapping of Submerged Stone Age Sites—A HALD Approach" Remote Sensing 13, no. 3: 445.

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