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Article

Altitude on Cartographic Materials and Its Correction According to New Measurement Techniques

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Department of Integrated Geodesy and Cartography, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Department of Tourism and Regional Studies, Institute of Geography, Pedagogical University of Cracow, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Krakow, Poland
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Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, University of Warsaw, ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warszaw, Poland
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Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Technical University in Zvolen, ul. T. G. Masaryka 24, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia
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Faculty of Humanities, University of Primorska, Titov trg 5, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
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Department of Land Management and Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Land Surveying, University of Agriculture in Krakow, ul. Balicka 253 C, 30-198 Kraków, Poland
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Faculty of Geography and Biology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków, Poland
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Department of Mine Areas Protection, Geoinformatics and Mine Surveying, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, St. Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
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Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova cesta 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Fernández
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030444
Received: 28 December 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 25 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing History of Land Surface Change)
Determining the correct height of mountain peaks is vital for tourism, but it is also important as a reference point for devices equipped with GPS (Global Positioning System), e.g., watches or car navigation systems. The peak altitude data are part of geographic and geodetic information. As more modern technologies and equipment become available, their precisions should increase. However, verification of peak heights is usually only conducted for the highest, well-known mountains—lower peaks or mountain passes are rarely verified. Therefore, this study focuses on an investigation of 12 altitude points on a section of the longest and most famous touristic trail in Poland (the Main Beskid Trail), located in the Orava–Żywiec Beskids Mts (Mountains). The aim of this research is to measure and verify the heights of the 12 selected mountain peaks, in addition to evaluating the chosen methods based on the quality of the obtained data and determining their suitability and opportunities for use in further research. Measurements were obtained at the most specific height points—on the 12 highest points of the summits. This study compares two modern measurement techniques: the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and light detection and ranging (LiDAR). The obtained results were later compared with those widely used on the internet and in printed materials (period covered: 1884–2015). This analysis demonstrates that lesser-known objects are rarely the subject of remeasurement and significant altitude errors may occur, primarily because the heights originated from a source in the past when modern methods were not available. Our findings indicate that the heights of the peaks presented in cartographic materials are inaccurate. The assumed heights should be corrected by direct measurements using modern techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: measuring techniques; GNSS; LiDAR; mountain; peak; altitude; old maps; cartography measuring techniques; GNSS; LiDAR; mountain; peak; altitude; old maps; cartography
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maciuk, K.; Apollo, M.; Mostowska, J.; Lepeška, T.; Poklar, M.; Noszczyk, T.; Kroh, P.; Krawczyk, A.; Borowski, Ł.; Pavlovčič-Prešeren, P. Altitude on Cartographic Materials and Its Correction According to New Measurement Techniques. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 444. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030444

AMA Style

Maciuk K, Apollo M, Mostowska J, Lepeška T, Poklar M, Noszczyk T, Kroh P, Krawczyk A, Borowski Ł, Pavlovčič-Prešeren P. Altitude on Cartographic Materials and Its Correction According to New Measurement Techniques. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(3):444. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030444

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maciuk, Kamil, Michał Apollo, Joanna Mostowska, Tomáš Lepeška, Mojca Poklar, Tomasz Noszczyk, Pawel Kroh, Artur Krawczyk, Łukasz Borowski, and Polona Pavlovčič-Prešeren. 2021. "Altitude on Cartographic Materials and Its Correction According to New Measurement Techniques" Remote Sensing 13, no. 3: 444. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030444

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