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Article

Estimation of Individual Tree Stem Biomass in an Uneven-Aged Structured Coniferous Forest Using Multispectral LiDAR Data

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Laboratory of Forest Management and Remote Sensing, School of Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 248, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francois Girard
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(23), 4827; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234827
Received: 4 November 2021 / Revised: 20 November 2021 / Accepted: 25 November 2021 / Published: 27 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Remote Sensing)
Stem biomass is a fundamental component of the global carbon cycle that is essential for forest productivity estimation. Over the last few decades, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has proven to be a useful tool for accurate carbon stock and biomass estimation in various biomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of multispectral LiDAR data for the reliable estimation of single-tree total and barkless stem biomass (TSB and BSB) in an uneven-aged structured forest with complex topography. Destructive and non-destructive field measurements were collected for a total of 67 dominant and co-dominant Abies borisii-regis trees located in a mountainous area in Greece. Subsequently, two allometric equations were constructed to enrich the reference data with non-destructively sampled trees. Five different regression algorithms were tested for single-tree BSB and TSB estimation using height (height percentiles and bicentiles, max and average height) and intensity (skewness, standard deviation and average intensity) LiDAR-derived metrics: Generalized Linear Models (GLMs), Gaussian Process (GP), Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost). The results showcased that the RF algorithm provided the best overall predictive performance in both BSB (i.e., RMSE = 175.76 kg and R2 = 0.78) and TSB (i.e., RMSE = 211.16 kg and R2 = 0.65) cases. Our work demonstrates that BSB can be estimated with moderate to high accuracy using all the tested algorithms, contrary to the TSB, where only three algorithms (RF, SVR and GP) can adequately provide accurate TSB predictions due to bark irregularities along the stems. Overall, the multispectral LiDAR data provide accurate stem biomass estimates, the general applicability of which should be further tested in different biomes and ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: stem biomass; multispectral LiDAR; remote sensing; regression analysis stem biomass; multispectral LiDAR; remote sensing; regression analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Georgopoulos, N.; Gitas, I.Z.; Stefanidou, A.; Korhonen, L.; Stavrakoudis, D. Estimation of Individual Tree Stem Biomass in an Uneven-Aged Structured Coniferous Forest Using Multispectral LiDAR Data. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 4827. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234827

AMA Style

Georgopoulos N, Gitas IZ, Stefanidou A, Korhonen L, Stavrakoudis D. Estimation of Individual Tree Stem Biomass in an Uneven-Aged Structured Coniferous Forest Using Multispectral LiDAR Data. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(23):4827. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234827

Chicago/Turabian Style

Georgopoulos, Nikos, Ioannis Z. Gitas, Alexandra Stefanidou, Lauri Korhonen, and Dimitris Stavrakoudis. 2021. "Estimation of Individual Tree Stem Biomass in an Uneven-Aged Structured Coniferous Forest Using Multispectral LiDAR Data" Remote Sensing 13, no. 23: 4827. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234827

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