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Thermal Imaging Shows Submarine Groundwater Discharge Plumes Associated with Ancient Settlements on Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile)

1
Environmental Studies Program, Department of Anthropology, Harpur College of Arts and Sciences, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA
2
Department of Geological Sciences, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA
3
Honors College and School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dimitrios D. Alexakis
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(13), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132531
Received: 19 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Archaeology)
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is an important component of many coastal environments and hydrologic processes, providing sources of nutrients to marine ecosystems, and potentially, an important source of fresh water for human populations. Here, we use a combination of unpiloted aerial systems (UAS) thermal infrared (TIR) imaging and salinity measurements to characterize SGD on the remote East Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile). Previous research has shown that coastal freshwater seeps are abundant on Rapa Nui and strongly associated with the locations of ancient settlement sites. We currently lack, however, information on the differential magnitude or quality of these sources of fresh water. Our UAS-based TIR results from four locations on Rapa Nui suggest that locations of variably-sized SGD plumes are associated with many ancient settlement sites on the island and that these water sources are resilient to drought events. These findings support previous work indicating that ancient Rapa Nui communities responded to the inherent and climate-induced hydrological challenges of the island by focusing on these abundant and resilient freshwater sources. Our results highlight the efficacy of using UAS-based TIR for detecting relatively small SGD locations and provide key insights on the potential uses of these water sources for past and current Rapa Nui communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: archaeology; drones; thermal imagery; Polynesia archaeology; drones; thermal imagery; Polynesia
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MDPI and ACS Style

DiNapoli, R.J.; Lipo, C.P.; de Smet, T.S.; Hunt, T.L. Thermal Imaging Shows Submarine Groundwater Discharge Plumes Associated with Ancient Settlements on Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile). Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 2531. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132531

AMA Style

DiNapoli RJ, Lipo CP, de Smet TS, Hunt TL. Thermal Imaging Shows Submarine Groundwater Discharge Plumes Associated with Ancient Settlements on Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile). Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(13):2531. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132531

Chicago/Turabian Style

DiNapoli, Robert J., Carl P. Lipo, Timothy S. de Smet, and Terry L. Hunt 2021. "Thermal Imaging Shows Submarine Groundwater Discharge Plumes Associated with Ancient Settlements on Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile)" Remote Sensing 13, no. 13: 2531. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132531

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