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Open AccessArticle

Modelling and Terrestrial Laser Scanning Methodology (2009–2018) on Debris Cones in Temperate High Mountains

1
Department of Graphic Expression, INTERRA Research Institute for Sustainable Territorial Development, NEXUS Research Group: Engineering, Territory and Heritage, University of Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad s/n, 10003 Cáceres, Spain
2
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Applied to Civil Engineering, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Calle del Profesor Aranguren 3, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Applied Mathematics, Technical School of Engineering, Comillas Pontifical University, Calle de Alberto Aguilera 25, 28015 Madrid, Spain
4
Department of Geography, PANGEA Research Group: Natural Heritage and Applied Geography, University of Valladolid, Plaza del Campus s/n, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(4), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12040632 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 December 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2020 / Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Remote Sensing for Physical Geography)
Debris cones are a very common landform in temperate high mountains. They are the most representative examples of the periglacial and nival processes. This work studies the dynamic behavior of two debris cones (Cone A and Cone B) in the Picos de Europa, in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Their evolution was measured uninterruptedly throughout each August for 10 years (2009–2018) using the Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technique. The observations and calculations of the two debris cones were treated independently, but both showed the same behavior. Therefore, if these results are extrapolated to other debris cones in similar environments (temperate high mountain), they should show behavior similar to that of the two debris cones analyzed. Material falls onto the cones from the walls, and transfer of sediments follows linear trajectories according to the maximum slope. In order to understand the linear evolution of the two debris cones, profiles were created along the maximum slope lines of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of 2009, and these profile lines were extrapolated to the remaining years of measurement. In order to determine volumetric surface behavior in the DEMs, each year for the period 2009–2018 was compared. In addition, the statistical predictive value for position (Z) in year 2018 was calculated for the same planimetric position (X,Y) throughout the profiles of maximum slopes. To do so, the real field data from 2009–2017 were interpolated and used to form a sample of curves. These curves are interpreted as the realization of a functional random variable that can be predicted using statistical techniques. The predictive curve obtained was compared with the 2018 field data. The results of both coordinates (Z), the real field data, and the statistical data are coherent within the margin of error of the data collection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Picos de Europa; debris cones; surface dynamic; mathematical modelling; terrestrial laser scanning Picos de Europa; debris cones; surface dynamic; mathematical modelling; terrestrial laser scanning
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Sanjosé-Blasco, J.J.; López-González, M.; Alonso-Pérez, E.; Serrano, E. Modelling and Terrestrial Laser Scanning Methodology (2009–2018) on Debris Cones in Temperate High Mountains. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 632.

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