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Open AccessArticle

Design and Evaluation of a Permanently Installed Plane-Based Calibration Field for Mobile Laser Scanning Systems

Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation, University of Bonn, Nussallee 17, 53115 Bonn, Germany
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Remote Sens. 2020, 12(3), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12030555
Received: 27 December 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 4 February 2020 / Published: 7 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mobile Mapping Technologies)
Mobile laser scanning has become an established measuring technique that is used for many applications in the fields of mapping, inventory, and monitoring. Due to the increasing operationality of such systems, quality control w.r.t. calibration and evaluation of the systems becomes more and more important and is subject to on-going research. This paper contributes to this topic by using tools from geodetic configuration analysis in order to design and evaluate a plane-based calibration field for determining the lever arm and boresight angles of a 2D laser scanner w.r.t. a GNSS/IMU unit (Global Navigation Satellite System, Inertial Measurement Unit). In this regard, the impact of random, systematic, and gross observation errors on the calibration is analyzed leading to a plane setup that provides accurate and controlled calibration parameters. The designed plane setup is realized in the form of a permanently installed calibration field. The applicability of the calibration field is tested with a real mobile laser scanning system by frequently repeating the calibration. Empirical standard deviations of <1 ... 1.5 mm for the lever arm and <0.005 for the boresight angles are obtained, which was priorly defined to be the goal of the calibration. In order to independently evaluate the mobile laser scanning system after calibration, an evaluation environment is realized consisting of a network of control points as well as TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) reference point clouds. Based on the control points, both the horizontal and vertical accuracy of the system is found to be < 10 mm (root mean square error). This is confirmed by comparisons to the TLS reference point clouds indicating a well calibrated system. Both the calibration field and the evaluation environment are permanently installed and can be used for arbitrary mobile laser scanning systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile laser scanning; lever arm; boresight angles; plane-based calibration field; configuration analysis; accuracy; controllability; evaluation; control points; TLS reference point clouds mobile laser scanning; lever arm; boresight angles; plane-based calibration field; configuration analysis; accuracy; controllability; evaluation; control points; TLS reference point clouds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Heinz, E.; Holst, C.; Kuhlmann, H.; Klingbeil, L. Design and Evaluation of a Permanently Installed Plane-Based Calibration Field for Mobile Laser Scanning Systems. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 555.

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