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Letter

Application of GNSS Interferometric Reflectometry for the Estimation of Lake Ice Thickness

1
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
2
H2O Geomatics Inc., Waterloo, ON N2L 1S7, Canada
3
Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0E4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(17), 2721; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12172721
Received: 3 July 2020 / Revised: 18 August 2020 / Accepted: 21 August 2020 / Published: 23 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
Lake ice thickness is a sensitive indicator of climate change largely through its dependency on near-surface air temperature and on-ice snow mass (depth and density). Monitoring of the seasonal variations and trends in ice thickness is also important for the operation of winter ice roads that northern communities rely on for the movement of goods as well as for cultural and leisure activities (e.g., snowmobiling). Therefore, consistent measurements of ice thickness over lakes is important; however, field measurements tend to be sparse in both space and time in many northern countries. Here, we present an application of L-band frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Interferometric Reflectometry (GNSS-IR) for the estimation of lake ice thickness. The proof of concept is demonstrated through the analysis of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) time series extracted from Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation L1 band raw data acquired between 8 and 22 March (2017 and 2019) at 14 lake ice sites located in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Dominant frequencies are extracted using Least Squares Harmonic Estimation (LS-HE) for the retrieval of ice thickness. Estimates compare favorably with in-situ measurements (mean absolute error = 0.05 m, mean bias error = −0.01 m, and root mean square error = 0.07 m). These results point to the potential of GPS/GNSS-IR as a complementary tool to traditional field measurements for obtaining consistent ice thickness estimates at many lake locations, given the relatively low cost of GNSS antennas/receivers. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; GPS; interferometry; reflectometry; lake ice thickness GNSS; GPS; interferometry; reflectometry; lake ice thickness
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghiasi, Y.; Duguay, C.R.; Murfitt, J.; van der Sanden, J.J.; Thompson, A.; Drouin, H.; Prévost, C. Application of GNSS Interferometric Reflectometry for the Estimation of Lake Ice Thickness. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 2721. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12172721

AMA Style

Ghiasi Y, Duguay CR, Murfitt J, van der Sanden JJ, Thompson A, Drouin H, Prévost C. Application of GNSS Interferometric Reflectometry for the Estimation of Lake Ice Thickness. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(17):2721. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12172721

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghiasi, Yusof, Claude R. Duguay, Justin Murfitt, Joost J. van der Sanden, Aaron Thompson, Hugo Drouin, and Christian Prévost. 2020. "Application of GNSS Interferometric Reflectometry for the Estimation of Lake Ice Thickness" Remote Sensing 12, no. 17: 2721. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12172721

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