Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) is a remote sensing image analysis paradigm that defines and examines image-objects: groups of neighboring pixels that represent real-world geographic objects. Recent reviews have examined methodological considerations and highlighted how GEOBIA improves upon the 30+ year pixel-based approach, particularly for H-resolution imagery. However, the literature also exposes an opportunity to improve guidance on the application of GEOBIA for novice practitioners. In this paper, we describe the theoretical foundations of GEOBIA and provide a comprehensive overview of the methodological workflow, including: (i) software-specific approaches (open-source and commercial); (ii) best practices informed by research; and (iii) the current status of methodological research. Building on this foundation, we then review recent research on the convergence of GEOBIA with deep convolutional neural networks, which we suggest is a new form of GEOBIA. Specifically, we discuss general integrative approaches and offer recommendations for future research. Overall, this paper describes the past, present, and anticipated future of GEOBIA in a novice-accessible format, while providing innovation and depth to experienced practitioners.
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