Next Article in Journal
Antarctic Supraglacial Lake Detection Using Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 Imagery: Towards Continental Generation of Lake Volumes
Next Article in Special Issue
Adjusting for Desert-Dust-Related Biases in a Climate Data Record of Sea Surface Temperature
Previous Article in Journal
The Performance of Different Mapping Functions and Gradient Models in the Determination of Slant Tropospheric Delay
Previous Article in Special Issue
Using Saildrones to Validate Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Salinity and Sea Surface Temperature along the California/Baja Coast
Article

New Evidence of Mediterranean Climate Change and Variability from Sea Surface Temperature Observations

1
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Scienze Marine (CNR-ISMAR), 00133 Rome, Italy
2
Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l’Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Centro Ricerche Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Rome), Italy
3
Dipartimento di Matematica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185 Rome, Italy
4
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Scienze Marine (CNR-ISMAR), 80133 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12010132
Received: 25 November 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 1 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature Retrievals from Remote Sensing)
Estimating long-term modifications of the sea surface temperature (SST) is crucial for evaluating the current state of the oceans and to correctly assess the impact of climate change at regional scales. In this work, we analyze SST variations within the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent Northeastern Atlantic box (west of the Strait of Gibraltar) over the last 37 years, by using a satellite-based dataset from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). We found a mean warming trend of 0.041 ± 0.006 C/year over the whole Mediterranean Sea from 1982 to 2018. The trend has an uneven spatial pattern, with values increasing from 0.036 ± 0.006 C/year in the western basin to 0.048 ± 0.006 C/year in the Levantine–Aegean basin. The Northeastern Atlantic box and the Mediterranean show a similar trend until the late 1990s. Afterwards, the Mediterranean SST continues to increase, whereas the Northeastern Atlantic box shows no significant trend, until ~2015. The observed change in the Mediterranean Sea affects not only the mean trend but also the amplitude of the Mediterranean seasonal signal, with consistent relative increase and decrease of summer and winter mean values, respectively, over the period considered. The analysis of SST changes occurred during the “satellite era” is further complemented by reconstructions also based on direct in situ SST measurements, i.e., the Extended Reconstructed SST (ERSST) and the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset (HadISST), which go back to the 19th century. The analysis of these longer time series, covering the last 165 years, indicates that the increasing Mediterranean trend, observed during the CMEMS operational period, is consistent with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), as it closely follows the last increasing period of AMO. This coincidence occurs at least until 2007, when the apparent onset of the decreasing phase of AMO is not seen in the Mediterranean SST evolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea surface temperature; Mediterranean Sea; trend; seasonal and long-term variability sea surface temperature; Mediterranean Sea; trend; seasonal and long-term variability
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Pisano, A.; Marullo, S.; Artale, V.; Falcini, F.; Yang, C.; Leonelli, F.E.; Santoleri, R.; Buongiorno Nardelli, B. New Evidence of Mediterranean Climate Change and Variability from Sea Surface Temperature Observations. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 132. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12010132

AMA Style

Pisano A, Marullo S, Artale V, Falcini F, Yang C, Leonelli FE, Santoleri R, Buongiorno Nardelli B. New Evidence of Mediterranean Climate Change and Variability from Sea Surface Temperature Observations. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(1):132. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12010132

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pisano, Andrea, Salvatore Marullo, Vincenzo Artale, Federico Falcini, Chunxue Yang, Francesca E. Leonelli, Rosalia Santoleri, and Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli. 2020. "New Evidence of Mediterranean Climate Change and Variability from Sea Surface Temperature Observations" Remote Sensing 12, no. 1: 132. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12010132

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop