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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(7), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11070886

Multi-Source Data Fusion Based on Ensemble Learning for Rapid Building Damage Mapping during the 2018 Sulawesi Earthquake and Tsunami in Palu, Indonesia

1
Geoinformatics Unit, RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligence Project, Tokyo 103-0027, Japan
2
International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8752, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract

This work presents a detailed analysis of building damage recognition, employing multi-source data fusion and ensemble learning algorithms for rapid damage mapping tasks. A damage classification framework is introduced and tested to categorize the building damage following the recent 2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami. Three robust ensemble learning classifiers were investigated for recognizing building damage from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical remote sensing datasets and their derived features. The contribution of each feature dataset was also explored, considering different combinations of sensors as well as their temporal information. SAR scenes acquired by the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 and Sentinel-1 sensors were used. The optical Sentinel-2 and PlanetScope sensors were also included in this study. A non-local filter in the preprocessing phase was used to enhance the SAR features. Our results demonstrated that the canonical correlation forests classifier performs better in comparison to the other classifiers. In the data fusion analysis, Digital Elevation Model (DEM)- and SAR-derived features contributed the most in the overall damage classification. Our proposed mapping framework successfully classifies four levels of building damage (with overall accuracy >90%, average accuracy >67%). The proposed framework learned the damage patterns from a limited available human-interpreted building damage annotation and expands this information to map a larger affected area. This process including pre- and post-processing phases were completed in about 3 h after acquiring all raw datasets. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2018 Sulawesi earthquake-tsunami; rapid building damage mapping; ensemble learning classifier 2018 Sulawesi earthquake-tsunami; rapid building damage mapping; ensemble learning classifier
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Adriano, B.; Xia, J.; Baier, G.; Yokoya, N.; Koshimura, S. Multi-Source Data Fusion Based on Ensemble Learning for Rapid Building Damage Mapping during the 2018 Sulawesi Earthquake and Tsunami in Palu, Indonesia. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 886.

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