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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(7), 867;

Temporal Up-Sampling of Planar Long-Range Doppler LiDAR Wind Speed Measurements Using Space-Time Conversion

ForWind–University of Oldenburg, Institute of Physics, Küpkersweg 70, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Atmosphere Remote Sensing)
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Measurement campaigns in wind energy research are becoming increasingly complex, which has exacerbated the difficulty of taking optimal measurements using light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems. Compromises between spatial and temporal resolutions are always necessary in the study of heterogeneous flows, like wind turbine wakes. Below, we develop a method for space-time conversion that acts as a temporal fluid-dynamic interpolation without incurring the immense computing costs of a 4D flow solver. We tested this space-time conversion with synthetic LiDAR data extracted from a large-eddy-simulation (LES) of a neutrally stable single-turbine wake field. The data was synthesised with a numerical LiDAR simulator. Then, we performed a parametric study of 11 different scanning velocities. We found that temporal error dominates the mapping error at low scanning speeds and that spatial error becomes dominant at fast scanning speeds. Our space-time conversion method increases the temporal resolution of the LiDAR data by a factor 2.4 to 40 to correct the scan-containing temporal shift and to synchronise the scan with the time code of the LES data. The mean-value error of the test case is reduced to a minimum relative error of 0.13% and the standard-deviation error is reduced to a minimum of 0.6% when the optimal scanning velocity is used. When working with the original unprocessed LiDAR measurements, the space-time-conversion yielded a maximal error reduction of 69% in the mean value and 58% in the standard deviation with the parameters identified with our analysis.
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Keywords: improvement; synchronisation; statistics; wakes; scanning measurements; flow solver improvement; synchronisation; statistics; wakes; scanning measurements; flow solver

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Beck, H.; Kühn, M. Temporal Up-Sampling of Planar Long-Range Doppler LiDAR Wind Speed Measurements Using Space-Time Conversion. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 867.

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