Next Article in Journal
Spatially Explicit Mapping of Soil Conservation Service in Monetary Units Due to Land Use/Cover Change for the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China
Previous Article in Journal
Estimation of Surface Air Specific Humidity and Air–Sea Latent Heat Flux Using FY-3C Microwave Observations
Article Menu
Issue 4 (February-2) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Drifting Effects of NOAA Satellites on Long-Term Active Fire Records of Europe

1
Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Hallerstr. 12, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
2
Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Hochschulstr. 4, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(4), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11040467
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
  |  
PDF [2307 KB, uploaded 25 February 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Explicit knowledge of different error sources in long-term climate records from space is required to understand and mitigate their impacts on resulting time series. Imagery of the heritage Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) provides unique potential for climate research dating back to the 1980s, flying onboard a series of successive National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Meteorological Operational (MetOp) satellites. However, the NOAA satellites are affected by severe orbital drift that results in spurious trends in time series. We identified the impact and extent of the orbital drift in 1 km AVHRR long-term active fire data. This record contains data of European fire activity from 1985–2016 and was analyzed on a regional scale and extended across Europe. Inconsistent sampling of the diurnal active fire cycle due to orbital drift with a maximum delay of ∼5 h over NOAA-14 lifetime revealed a ∼90% decline in the number of observed fires. However, interregional results were less conclusive and other error sources as well as interannual variability were more pronounced. Solar illumination, measured by the sun zenith angle (SZA), related changes in background temperatures were significant for all regions and afternoon satellites with major changes in −0.03 to −0.09 K deg 1 for B T 34 (p 0 . 001). Based on example scenes, we simulated the influence of changing temperatures related to changes in the SZA on the detection of active fires. These simulations showed a profound influence of the active fire detection capabilities dependent on biome and land cover characteristics. The strong decrease in the relative changes in the apparent number of active fires calculated over the satellites lifetime highlights that a correction of the orbital drift effect is essential even over short time periods. View Full-Text
Keywords: NOAA satellite; AVHRR; orbital drift; active fire; time series; fire regime; Europe NOAA satellite; AVHRR; orbital drift; active fire; time series; fire regime; Europe
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Weber, H.; Wunderle, S. Drifting Effects of NOAA Satellites on Long-Term Active Fire Records of Europe. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 467.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top