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Uncertainties in the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) Remote Sensing Reflectance for Assessing Diurnal Variability of Biogeochemical Processes

1
Ocean Ecology Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
2
Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD 21046, USA
3
Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Busan 49111, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(3), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11030295
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract

Short-term (sub-diurnal) biological and biogeochemical processes cannot be fully captured by the current suite of polar-orbiting satellite ocean color sensors, as their temporal resolution is limited to potentially one clear image per day. Geostationary sensors, such as the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) from the Republic of Korea, allow the study of these short-term processes because their orbit permit the collection of multiple images throughout each day for any area within the sensor’s field of regard. Assessing the capability to detect sub-diurnal changes in in-water properties caused by physical and biogeochemical processes characteristic of open ocean and coastal ocean ecosystems, however, requires an understanding of the uncertainties introduced by the instrument and/or geophysical retrieval algorithms. This work presents a study of the uncertainties during the daytime period for an ocean region with characteristically low-productivity with the assumption that only small and undetectable changes occur in the in-water properties due to biogeochemical processes during the daytime period. The complete GOCI mission data were processed using NASA’s SeaDAS/l2gen package. The assumption of homogeneity of the study region was tested using three-day sequences and diurnal statistics. This assumption was found to hold based on the minimal diurnal and day-to-day variability in GOCI data products. Relative differences with respect to the midday value were calculated for each hourly observation of the day in order to investigate what time of the day the variability is greater. Also, the influence of the solar zenith angle in the retrieval of remote sensing reflectances and derived products was examined. Finally, we determined that the uncertainties in water-leaving “remote-sensing” reflectance (Rrs) for the 412, 443, 490, 555, 660 and 680 nm bands on GOCI are 8.05 × 10−4, 5.49 × 10−4, 4.48 × 10−4, 2.51 × 10−4, 8.83 × 10−5, and 1.36 × 10−4 sr−1, respectively, and 1.09 × 10−2 mg m−3 for the chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), 2.09 × 10−3 m−1 for the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter at 412 nm (ag (412)), and 3.7 mg m−3 for particulate organic carbon (POC). These Rrs values can be considered the threshold values for detectable changes of the in-water properties due to biological, physical or biogeochemical processes from GOCI. View Full-Text
Keywords: Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI); ocean color; diurnal dynamics; diurnal variability; uncertainties Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI); ocean color; diurnal dynamics; diurnal variability; uncertainties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Concha, J.; Mannino, A.; Franz, B.; Kim, W. Uncertainties in the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) Remote Sensing Reflectance for Assessing Diurnal Variability of Biogeochemical Processes. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 295.

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