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Open AccessArticle

Diurnal and Seasonal Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Photosynthesis in a Boreal Scots Pine Canopy

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School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF, Scotland, UK
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Direction de la recherche forestière, Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, 2700 rue Einstein, Québec, QC G1P 3W8, Canada
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Optics of Photosynthesis Laboratory, Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
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Image Processing Laboratory (IPL), Parc Científic, Universitat de València, 46980 Paterna, València, Spain
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Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palmenin Aukio 1, P.O. Box 501, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
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NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20740, USA
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NERC Field Spectroscopy Facility, School of GeoSciences, Grant Institute, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, UK
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Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Hyytiäläntie 124, FI-35500 Korkeakoski, Finland
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Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, PO Box 48, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(3), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11030273
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
Solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence has been shown to be increasingly an useful proxy for the estimation of gross primary productivity (GPP), at a range of spatial scales. Here, we explore the seasonality in a continuous time series of canopy solar induced fluorescence (hereafter SiF) and its relation to canopy gross primary production (GPP), canopy light use efficiency (LUE), and direct estimates of leaf level photochemical efficiency in an evergreen canopy. SiF was calculated using infilling in two bands from the incoming and reflected radiance using a pair of Ocean Optics USB2000+ spectrometers operated in a dual field of view mode, sampling at a 30 min time step using custom written automated software, from early spring through until autumn in 2011. The optical system was mounted on a tower of 18 m height adjacent to an eddy covariance system, to observe a boreal forest ecosystem dominated by Scots pine. (Pinus sylvestris) A Walz MONITORING-PAM, multi fluorimeter system, was simultaneously mounted within the canopy adjacent to the footprint sampled by the optical system. Following correction of the SiF data for O2 and structural effects, SiF, SiF yield, LUE, the photochemicsl reflectance index (PRI), and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) exhibited a seasonal pattern that followed GPP sampled by the eddy covariance system. Due to the complexities of solar azimuth and zenith angle (SZA) over the season on the SiF signal, correlations between SiF, SiF yield, GPP, and LUE were assessed on SZA <50° and under strictly clear sky conditions. Correlations found, even under these screened scenarios, resulted around ~r2 = 0.3. The diurnal responses of SiF, SiF yield, PAM estimates of effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm′), and meteorological parameters demonstrated some agreement over the diurnal cycle. The challenges inherent in SiF retrievals in boreal evergreen ecosystems are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SiF); seasonal dynamics; photosynthetic efficiency; proximal remote sensing; coniferous forest; gross primary productivity (GPP); light-use efficiency (LUE); Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD); flux tower solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SiF); seasonal dynamics; photosynthetic efficiency; proximal remote sensing; coniferous forest; gross primary productivity (GPP); light-use efficiency (LUE); Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD); flux tower
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Nichol, C.J.; Drolet, G.; Porcar-Castell, A.; Wade, T.; Sabater, N.; Middleton, E.M.; MacLellan, C.; Levula, J.; Mammarella, I.; Vesala, T.; Atherton, J. Diurnal and Seasonal Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Photosynthesis in a Boreal Scots Pine Canopy. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 273.

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