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Open AccessArticle

Latest Geodetic Changes of Austre Lovénbreen and Pedersenbreen, Svalbard

Chinese Antarctic Center of Surveying and Mapping, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
ThéMA, CNRS, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 25030 Besançon, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(24), 2890;
Received: 24 October 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging Floods and Glacier Geohazards with Remote Sensing)
Geodetic mass changes in the Svalbard glaciers Austre Lovénbreen and Pedersenbreen were studied via high-precision real-time kinematic (RTK)-global positioning system (GPS) measurements from 2013 to 2015. To evaluate the elevation changes of the two Svalbard glaciers, more than 10,000 GPS records for each glacier surface were collected every year from 2013 to 2015. The results of several widely used interpolation methods (i.e., inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), universal kriging (UK), natural neighbor (NN), spline interpolation, and Topo to Raster (TTR) interpolation) were compared. Considering the smoothness and accuracy of the glacier surface, NN interpolation was selected as the most suitable interpolation method to generate a surface digital elevation model (DEM). In addition, we compared two procedures for calculating elevation changes: using DEMs generated from the direct interpolation of the RTK-GPS points and using the elevation bias of crossover points from the RTK-GPS tracks in different years. Then, the geodetic mass balances were calculated by converting the elevation changes to their water equivalents. Comparing the geodetic mass balances calculated with and without considering snow depth revealed that ignoring the effect of snow depth, which differs greatly over a short time interval, might lead to bias in mass balance investigation. In summary, there was a positive correlation between the geodetic mass balance and the corresponding elevation. The mass loss increased with decreasing elevation, and the mean annual gradients of the geodetic mass balance along the elevation of Austre Lovénbreen and Pedersenbreen in 2013–2015 were approximately 2.60‰ and 2.35‰, respectively. The gradients at the glacier snouts were three times larger than those over the whole glaciers. Additionally, some mass gain occurred in certain high-elevation regions. Compared with a 2019 DEM generated from unmanned aerial vehicle measurement, the glacier snout areas presented an accelerating thinning situation in 2015–2019.
Keywords: mass balance; snow depth; glacier retreat; surface DEM; elevation change mass balance; snow depth; glacier retreat; surface DEM; elevation change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ai, S.; Ding, X.; Tolle, F.; Wang, Z.; Zhao, X. Latest Geodetic Changes of Austre Lovénbreen and Pedersenbreen, Svalbard. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2890.

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