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Open AccessArticle

Annual Green Water Resources and Vegetation Resilience Indicators: Definitions, Mutual Relationships, and Future Climate Projections

1
European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 21027 Ispra, Italy
2
Fondazione Centro euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici—CMCC, 40127 Bologna, Italy
3
Faculty ITC, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(22), 2708; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11222708
Received: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 November 2019 / Published: 19 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystem Services with Remote Sensing)
Satellites offer a privileged view on terrestrial ecosystems and a unique possibility to evaluate their status, their resilience and the reliability of the services they provide. In this study, we introduce two indicators for estimating the resilience of terrestrial ecosystems from the local to the global levels. We use the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to estimate annual vegetation primary production resilience. We use annual precipitation time series to estimate annual green water resource resilience. Resilience estimation is achieved through the annual production resilience indicator, originally developed in agricultural science, which is formally derived from the original ecological definition of resilience i.e., the largest stress that the system can absorb without losing its function. Interestingly, we find coherent relationships between annual green water resource resilience and vegetation primary production resilience over a wide range of world biomes, suggesting that green water resource resilience contributes to determining vegetation primary production resilience. Finally, we estimate the changes of green water resource resilience due to climate change using results from the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP6) and discuss the potential consequences of global warming for ecosystem service reliability. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecosystem services; precipitation; NDVI; water resources; primary production; resilience indicator; stability; reliability ecosystem services; precipitation; NDVI; water resources; primary production; resilience indicator; stability; reliability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zampieri, M.; Grizzetti, B.; Meroni, M.; Scoccimarro, E.; Vrieling, A.; Naumann, G.; Toreti, A. Annual Green Water Resources and Vegetation Resilience Indicators: Definitions, Mutual Relationships, and Future Climate Projections. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2708.

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