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Open AccessArticle

Automatic Inundation Mapping Using Sentinel-2 Data Applicable to Both Camargue and Doñana Biosphere Reserves

1
Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Charilaou-Thermi Rd. 6th km, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Tour du Valat Research Institute for the conservation of Mediterranean wetlands, Le Sambuc, 13200 Arles, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(19), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192251
Received: 19 July 2019 / Revised: 22 September 2019 / Accepted: 25 September 2019 / Published: 27 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Applications of Geoinformation)
Flooding periodicity is crucial for biomass production and ecosystem functions in wetland areas. Local monitoring networks may be enriched by spaceborne derived products with a temporal resolution of a few days. Unsupervised computer vision techniques are preferred, since human interference and the use of training data may be kept to a minimum. Recently, a novel automatic local thresholding unsupervised methodology for separating inundated areas from non-inundated ones led to successful results for the Doñana Biosphere Reserve. This study examines the applicability of this approach to Camarque Biosphere Reserve, and proposes alternatives to the original approach to enhance accuracy and applicability for both Camargue and Doñana wetlands in a scientific quest for methods that may serve accurately biomes at both protected areas. In particular, it examines alternative inputs for automatically estimating thresholds while applying various algorithms for estimating the splitting thresholds. Reference maps for Camargue are provided by local authorities, and generated using Sentinel-2 Band 8A (NIR) and Band 12 (SWIR-2). The alternative approaches examined led to high inundation mapping accuracy. In particular, for the Camargue study area and 39 different dates, the alternative approach with the highest overall Kappa coefficient is 0.84, while, for the Doñana Biosphere Reserve and Doñana marshland (a subset of Doñana Reserve) and 7 different dates, is 0.85 and 0.94, respectively. Moreover, there are alternative approaches with high overall Kappa for all areas, i.e., at 0.79 for Camargue, over 0.91 for Doñana marshland, and over 0.82 for Doñana Reserve. Additionally, this study identifies the alternative approaches that perform better when the study area is extensively covered by temporary flooded and emergent vegetation areas (i.e., Camargue Reserve and Doñana marshland) or when it contains a large percentage of dry areas (i.e., Doñana Reserve). The development of credible automatic thresholding techniques that can be applied to different wetlands could lead to a higher degree of automation for map production, while enhancing service utilization by non-trained personnel. View Full-Text
Keywords: inundation mapping; flood mapping; automatic thresholding; Sentinel-2; wetlands; marshland; Camargue; Doñana inundation mapping; flood mapping; automatic thresholding; Sentinel-2; wetlands; marshland; Camargue; Doñana
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kordelas, G.A.; Manakos, I.; Lefebvre, G.; Poulin, B. Automatic Inundation Mapping Using Sentinel-2 Data Applicable to Both Camargue and Doñana Biosphere Reserves. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2251.

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