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Open AccessReview

A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Water-Leaving Radiance for Validation of Satellite Remote-Sensing Data over Water

Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS), Operational Directorate Natural Environment, 29 Rue Vautierstraat, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
Physics Department, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA
School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
Protistology and Aquatic Ecology Research Group, Gent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Gent, Belgium
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive #0224, La Jolla, CA 92093-0224, USA
Department of Electrical Engineering, The City College of New York, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031, USA
Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu, 61602 Tõravere, Estonia
School for the Environment, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125-3393, USA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Center for Weather and Climate Prediction, 5830 University Research Court, College Park, MD 20740, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(19), 2198;
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 4 September 2019 / Accepted: 6 September 2019 / Published: 20 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiducial Reference Measurements for Satellite Ocean Colour)
This paper reviews the state of the art of protocols for measurement of water-leaving radiance in the context of fiducial reference measurements (FRM) of water reflectance for satellite validation. Measurement of water reflectance requires the measurement of water-leaving radiance and downwelling irradiance just above water. For the former there are four generic families of method, based on: (1) underwater radiometry at fixed depths; or (2) underwater radiometry with vertical profiling; or (3) above-water radiometry with skyglint correction; or (4) on-water radiometry with skylight blocked. Each method is described generically in the FRM context with reference to the measurement equation, documented implementations and the intra-method diversity of deployment platform and practice. Ideal measurement conditions are stated, practical recommendations are provided on best practice and guidelines for estimating the measurement uncertainty are provided for each protocol-related component of the measurement uncertainty budget. The state of the art for measurement of water-leaving radiance is summarized, future perspectives are outlined, and the question of which method is best adapted to various circumstances (water type, wavelength) is discussed. This review is based on practice and papers of the aquatic optics community for the validation of water reflectance estimated from satellite data but can be relevant also for other applications such as the development or validation of algorithms for remote-sensing estimation of water constituents including chlorophyll a concentration, inherent optical properties and related products. View Full-Text
Keywords: water reflectance; satellite validation; Fiducial Reference Measurements; water-leaving radiance water reflectance; satellite validation; Fiducial Reference Measurements; water-leaving radiance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruddick, K.G.; Voss, K.; Boss, E.; Castagna, A.; Frouin, R.; Gilerson, A.; Hieronymi, M.; Johnson, B.C.; Kuusk, J.; Lee, Z.; Ondrusek, M.; Vabson, V.; Vendt, R. A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Water-Leaving Radiance for Validation of Satellite Remote-Sensing Data over Water. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2198.

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