In May 2016, the availability of GNSS raw measurements on smart devices was announced by Google with the release of Android 7. It means that developers can access carrier-phase and pseudorange measurements and decode navigation messages for the first time from mass-market Android-devices. In this paper, an improved Hatch filter algorithm, i.e., Three-Thresholds and Single-Difference Hatch filter (TT-SD Hatch filter), is proposed for sub-meter single point positioning with raw GNSS measurements on Android devices without any augmentation correction input, where the carrier-phase smoothed pseudorange window width adaptively varies according to the three-threshold detection for ionospheric cumulative errors, cycle slips and outliers. In the mean time, it can also eliminate the inconsistency of receiver clock bias between pseudorange and carrier-phase by inter-satellite difference. To eliminate the effects of frequent smoothing window resets, we combine TT-SD Hatch filter and Kalman filter for both time update and measurement update. The feasibility of the improved TT-SD Hatch filter method is then verified using static and kinematic experiments with a Nexus 9 Android tablet. The result of the static experiment demonstrates that the position RMS of TT-SD Hatch filter is about 0.6 and 0.8 m in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. It is about 2 and 1.6 m less than the GNSS chipset solutions, and about 10 and 10 m less than the classical Hatch filter solution, respectively. Moreover, the TT-SD Hatch filter can accurately detect the cycle slips and outliers, and reset the smoothed window in time. It thus avoids the smoothing failure of Hatch filter when a large cycle-slip or an outlier occurs in the observations. Meanwhile, with the aid of the Kalman filter, TT-SD Hatch filter can keep continuously positioning at the sub-meter level. The result of the kinematic experiment demonstrates that the TT-SD Hatch filter solution can converge after a few minutes, and the 2D error is about 0.9 m, which is about 64%, 89%, and 92% smaller than that of the chipset solution, the traditional Hatch filter solution and standard single point solution, respectively. Finally, the TT-SD Hatch filter solution can recover a continuous driving track in this kinematic test.
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