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Asymmetric Effects of Daytime and Nighttime Warming on Boreal Forest Spring Phenology

1
School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
2
Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, Hohhot 010022, China
3
School of Geographical Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(14), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11141651
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Vegetation Phenology: Trends and Anomalies)
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Abstract

Vegetation phenology is the most intuitive and sensitive biological indicator of environmental conditions, and the start of the season (SOS) can reflect the rapid response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. At present, the model based on mean temperature neglects the role of the daytime maximum temperature (TMAX) and the nighttime minimum temperature (TMIN) in providing temperature accumulation and cold conditions at leaf onset. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal variations of spring phenology for the boreal forest from 2001 to 2017 based on the moderate-resolution imaging spectro-radiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data (MOD13A2) and investigated the asymmetric effects of daytime and nighttime warming on the boreal forest spring phenology during TMAX and TMIN preseason by partial correlation analysis. The results showed that the spring phenology was delayed with increasing latitude of the boreal forest. Approximately 91.37% of the region showed an advancing trend during the study period, with an average advancement rate of 3.38 ± 0.08 days/decade, and the change rates of different land cover types differed, especially in open shrubland. The length of the TMIN preseason was longer than that of the TMAX preseason and diurnal temperatures showed an asymmetrical increase during different preseasons. The daytime and nighttime warming effects on the boreal forest are asymmetrical. The TMAX has a greater impact on the vegetation spring phenology than TMIN as a whole and the effect also has seasonal differences; the TMAX mainly affects the SOS in spring, while TMIN has a greater impact in winter. The asymmetric effects of daytime and nighttime warming on the SOS in the boreal forest were highlighted in this study, and the results suggest that diurnal temperatures should be added to the forest terrestrial ecosystem model. View Full-Text
Keywords: spring phenology; start of the season; climate change; diurnal temperatures; boreal forest spring phenology; start of the season; climate change; diurnal temperatures; boreal forest
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Deng, G.; Zhang, H.; Guo, X.; Shan, Y.; Ying, H.; Rihan, W.; Li, H.; Han, Y. Asymmetric Effects of Daytime and Nighttime Warming on Boreal Forest Spring Phenology. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1651.

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