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Article

New Approach for Temporal Stability Evaluation of Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS)

1
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
2
Science Systems and Applications Inc., Lanham, MD 20706, USA
3
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(12), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11121502
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross-Calibration and Interoperability of Remote Sensing Instruments)
Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) are one of the most popular methods for in-flight vicarious radiometric calibration of Earth remote sensing satellites. The fundamental question of PICS temporal stability has not been adequately addressed. However, the main purpose of this work is to evaluate the temporal stability of a few PICS using a new approach. The analysis was performed over six PICS (Libya 1, Libya 4, Niger 1, Niger 2, Egypt 1 and Sudan 1). The concept of a “Virtual Constellation” was developed to provide greater temporal coverage and also to overcome the dependence limitation of any specific characteristic derived from one particular sensor. TOA reflectance data from four sensors consistently demonstrating “stable” calibration to within 5%—the Landsat 7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager), Terra MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and Sentinel-2A MSI (Multispectral Instrument)–were merged into a seamless dataset. Instead of using the traditional method of trend analysis (Student’s T test), a nonparametric Seasonal Mann-Kendall test was used for determining the PICS stability. The analysis results indicate that Libya 4 and Egypt 1 do not exhibit any monotonic trend in six reflective solar bands common to all of the studied sensors, indicating temporal stability. A decreasing monotonic trend was statistically detected in all bands, except SWIR 2, for Sudan 1 and the Green and Red bands for Niger 1. An increasing trend was detected in the Blue band for Niger 2 and the NIR band for Libya 1. These results do not suggest abandoning PICS as a viable calibration source. Rather, they indicate that PICS temporal stability cannot be assumed and should be regularly monitored as part of the sensor calibration process. View Full-Text
Keywords: PICS; BRDF; virtual constellation; monotonic trend; radiometric calibration; Landsat; MODIS; Sentinel PICS; BRDF; virtual constellation; monotonic trend; radiometric calibration; Landsat; MODIS; Sentinel
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tuli, F.T.Z.; Pinto, C.T.; Angal, A.; Xiong, X.; Helder, D. New Approach for Temporal Stability Evaluation of Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS). Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1502. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11121502

AMA Style

Tuli FTZ, Pinto CT, Angal A, Xiong X, Helder D. New Approach for Temporal Stability Evaluation of Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS). Remote Sensing. 2019; 11(12):1502. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11121502

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tuli, Fatima T.Z., Cibele T. Pinto, Amit Angal, Xiaoxiong Xiong, and Dennis Helder. 2019. "New Approach for Temporal Stability Evaluation of Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS)" Remote Sensing 11, no. 12: 1502. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11121502

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