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Open AccessArticle

In Situ and Satellite Sea Surface Salinity in the Algerian Basin Observed through ABACUS Glider Measurements and BEC SMOS Regional Products

1
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
2
Department of Science and Technology, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, 80143 Napoli, Italy
3
Department of Physical Oceanography, Institute of Marine Sciences, CSIC, Barcelona Expert Center, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(11), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11111361
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ten Years of Remote Sensing at Barcelona Expert Center)
The Algerian Basin is a key area for the general circulation in the western Mediterranean Sea. The basin has an intense inflow/outflow regime with complex circulation patterns, involving both fresh Atlantic water and more saline Mediterranean water. Several studies have demonstrated the advantages of the combined use of autonomous underwater vehicles, such as gliders, with remotely sensed products (e.g., altimetry, MUR SST) to observe meso- and submesoscale structures and their properties. An important contribution could come from a new generation of enhanced satellite sea surface salinity (SSS) products, e.g., those provided by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. In this paper, we assess the advantages of using Barcelona Expert Center (BEC) SMOS SSS products, obtained through a combination of debiased non-Bayesian retrieval, DINEOF (data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions) and multifractal fusion with high resolution sea surface temperature (OSTIA SST) maps. Such an aim was reached by comparing SMOS Level-3 (L3) and Level-4 (L4) SSS products with in situ high resolution glider measurements collected in the framework of the Algerian Basin Circulation Unmanned Survey (ABACUS) observational program conducted in the Algerian Basin during falls 2014–2016. Results show that different levels of confidence between in situ and satellite measurements can be achieved according to the spatial scales of variability. Although SMOS values slightly underestimate in situ observations (mean difference is −0.14 (−0.11)), with a standard deviation of 0.25 (0.26) for L3 (L4) products), at basin scale, the enhanced SMOS products well represent the salinity patterns described by the ABACUS data. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea surface salinity; BEC SMOS products; Mediterranean Sea; Algerian Basin; ABACUS gliders sea surface salinity; BEC SMOS products; Mediterranean Sea; Algerian Basin; ABACUS gliders
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Aulicino, G.; Cotroneo, Y.; Olmedo, E.; Cesarano, C.; Fusco, G.; Budillon, G. In Situ and Satellite Sea Surface Salinity in the Algerian Basin Observed through ABACUS Glider Measurements and BEC SMOS Regional Products. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1361.

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