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Article

Characterization of Electromagnetic Properties of In Situ Soils for the Design of Landmine Detection Sensors: Application in Donbass, Ukraine

1
Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17603, USA
2
National Scientific Center, Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry Research named after O.N. Sokolovsky, 61024 Kharkiv, Ukraine
3
O.Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61085 Kharkiv, Ukraine
4
Dipartimento Ingegneria dell’Informazione, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50139 Firenze, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(10), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11101232
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Ground Penetrating Radar Remote Sensing)
To design holographic and impulse ground penetrating radar (GPR) sensors suitable for humanitarian de-mining in the Donbass (Ukraine) conflict zone, we measured critical electromagnetic parameters of typical local soils using simple methods that could be adapted to any geologic setting. Measurements were recorded along six profiles, each crossing at least two mapped soil types. The parameters selected to evaluate GPR and metal detector sensor performance were magnetic permeability, electrical conductivity, and dielectric permittivity. Magnetic permeability measurements indicated that local soils would be conducive to metal detector performance. Electrical conductivity measurements indicated that local soils would be medium to high loss materials for GPR. Calculation of the expected attenuation as a function of signal frequency suggested that 1 GHz may have optimized the trade-off between resolution and penetration and matched the impulse GPR system power budget. Dielectric permittivity was measured using both time domain reflectometry and impulse GPR. For the latter, a calibration procedure based on an in-situ measurement of reflection coefficient was proposed and the data were analyzed to show that soil conditions were suitable for the reliable use of impulse GPR. A distinct difference between the results of these two suggested a dry (low dielectric) soil surface, grading downward into more moist (higher dielectric) soils. This gradation may provide a matching layer to reduce ground surface reflections that often obscure shallow subsurface targets. In addition, the relatively high dielectric deeper (10 cm–20 cm) subsurface soils should provide a strong contrast with plastic-cased mines. View Full-Text
Keywords: chernozem; ground penetrating radar; holographic radar; landmine; metal detector; soil permittivity; soil conductivity; soil magnetic permeability; attenuation; water content chernozem; ground penetrating radar; holographic radar; landmine; metal detector; soil permittivity; soil conductivity; soil magnetic permeability; attenuation; water content
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bechtel, T.; Truskavetsky, S.; Pochanin, G.; Capineri, L.; Sherstyuk, A.; Viatkin, K.; Byndych, T.; Ruban, V.; Varyanitza-Roschupkina, L.; Orlenko, O.; Kholod, P.; Falorni, P.; Bulletti, A.; Bossi, L.; Crawford, F. Characterization of Electromagnetic Properties of In Situ Soils for the Design of Landmine Detection Sensors: Application in Donbass, Ukraine. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1232. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11101232

AMA Style

Bechtel T, Truskavetsky S, Pochanin G, Capineri L, Sherstyuk A, Viatkin K, Byndych T, Ruban V, Varyanitza-Roschupkina L, Orlenko O, Kholod P, Falorni P, Bulletti A, Bossi L, Crawford F. Characterization of Electromagnetic Properties of In Situ Soils for the Design of Landmine Detection Sensors: Application in Donbass, Ukraine. Remote Sensing. 2019; 11(10):1232. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11101232

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bechtel, Timothy, Stanislav Truskavetsky, Gennadiy Pochanin, Lorenzo Capineri, Alexander Sherstyuk, Konstantin Viatkin, Tatyana Byndych, Vadym Ruban, Liudmyla Varyanitza-Roschupkina, Oleksander Orlenko, Pavlo Kholod, Pierluigi Falorni, Andrea Bulletti, Luca Bossi, and Fronefield Crawford. 2019. "Characterization of Electromagnetic Properties of In Situ Soils for the Design of Landmine Detection Sensors: Application in Donbass, Ukraine" Remote Sensing 11, no. 10: 1232. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11101232

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