Linking Heat Source–Sink Landscape Patterns with Analysis of Urban Heat Islands: Study on the Fast-Growing Zhengzhou City in Central China
Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development & Collaborative Innovation Center on Yellow River Civilization of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China
College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China
Department of Geography, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242-0001, USA
Department of Environment Science and Engineering, Jiangwang campus, Fudan University, 2005 Songhu Road, Shanghai 200438, China
Urban Informatics and Spatial Computing Lab, Department of Informatics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA
Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(8), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10081268
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Urban Ecology and Sustainability)
Globally, the urban heat island (UHI) effect is a major problem which leads to urban residents suffering from adverse urban ecological environments and serious health risks. Understanding the impacts of urban landscape features on the thermal environment has been an important focus across various fields of research. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of urban heat source–sink landscape patterns on urban heat islands, using the fast-growing Zhengzhou City in central China as the case study. Landsat data (captured in 1996, 2006, and 2014), various geospatial approaches, and correlation analysis were applied to facilitate the analysis. Based on the contributions of the urban landscape to land surface temperature (LST), we empirically identified the heat sources and heat sinks. Then, the composition and configurations of heat source and sink landscapes were estimated by a series of spatial metrics at the landscape and class levels. The results showed that the overall mean land surface temperature (LST) in the study area increased by 2.72 °C from 1996 to 2014. This observed increasing trend in overall mean LST is consistent with the process of rapid urbanization in the study area, which was evidenced by the dramatic increase in impervious surfaces and the substantial loss in vegetation cover. Generally, as observed, landscape composition has a stronger influence on LST than does landscape configuration. For heat sources, the proportion, size, aggregation, and density of patches have positive effects on LST, while adjusting the spatial distribution and abundance of urban landscape are effective ways to control the UHI effects. In contrast, the percentage, size, density, and aggregation of heat sink patches have negative effects on LST. Additionally, the effects of increasing total patch edges and shape complexity should be considered when mitigating the UHI effect. These findings are beneficial for furthering our understanding of how urban landscape patterns affect UHI, and they can help optimize urban landscape patterns to alleviate the UHI effect and enhance sustainable development in the study area.