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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071091

Quantitative Remote Sensing at Ultra-High Resolution with UAV Spectroscopy: A Review of Sensor Technology, Measurement Procedures, and Data Correction Workflows

1
Crop Science Group, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
2
Department of Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute, National Land Survey of Finland, Geodeetinrinne 2, 02431 Masala, Finland
3
Discipline of Geography and Spatial Sciences, School of Technology, Environments and Design, College of Sciences and Engineering, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 76, Hobart 7005, Australia
4
European Commission (EC), Joint Research Centre (JRC), Directorate D—Sustainable Resources, Via E. Fermi 2749—TP 261, 26a/043, I-21027 Ispra, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 30 June 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress and Developments in Imaging Spectroscopy)
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Abstract

In the last 10 years, development in robotics, computer vision, and sensor technology has provided new spectral remote sensing tools to capture unprecedented ultra-high spatial and high spectral resolution with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This development has led to a revolution in geospatial data collection in which not only few specialist data providers collect and deliver remotely sensed data, but a whole diverse community is potentially able to gather geospatial data that fit their needs. However, the diversification of sensing systems and user applications challenges the common application of good practice procedures that ensure the quality of the data. This challenge can only be met by establishing and communicating common procedures that have had demonstrated success in scientific experiments and operational demonstrations. In this review, we evaluate the state-of-the-art methods in UAV spectral remote sensing and discuss sensor technology, measurement procedures, geometric processing, and radiometric calibration based on the literature and more than a decade of experimentation. We follow the ‘journey’ of the reflected energy from the particle in the environment to its representation as a pixel in a 2D or 2.5D map, or 3D spectral point cloud. Additionally, we reflect on the current revolution in remote sensing, and identify trends, potential opportunities, and limitations. View Full-Text
Keywords: imaging spectroscopy; spectral; unmanned aerial vehicles; unmanned aerial systems (UAS); Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS); drone; calibration; hyperspectral; multispectral; low-altitude; remote sensing; sensors; 2D imager; pushbroom; snapshot; spectroradiometers imaging spectroscopy; spectral; unmanned aerial vehicles; unmanned aerial systems (UAS); Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS); drone; calibration; hyperspectral; multispectral; low-altitude; remote sensing; sensors; 2D imager; pushbroom; snapshot; spectroradiometers
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Aasen, H.; Honkavaara, E.; Lucieer, A.; Zarco-Tejada, P.J. Quantitative Remote Sensing at Ultra-High Resolution with UAV Spectroscopy: A Review of Sensor Technology, Measurement Procedures, and Data Correction Workflows. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1091.

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