Active learning (AL) has been shown to be very effective in hyperspectral image (HSI) classification. It significantly improves the performance by selecting a small quantity of the most informative training samples to reduce the complexity of classification. Multiview AL (MVAL) can make the comprehensive analysis of both object characterization and sampling selection in AL by using various features of multiple views. However, the original MVAL cannot effectively exploit the spectral-spatial information by respecting the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the HSI and the query selection strategy in the MVAL is only based on the disagreement of multiple views. In this paper, we propose a 3D-Gabor inspired MVAL method for spectral-spatial HSI classification, which consists of two main steps. First, in the view generation step, we adopt a 3D-Gabor filter to generate multiple cubes with limited bands and utilize the feature assessment strategies to select cubes for constructing views. Second, in the sampling selection step, a novel method is proposed by using both internal and external uncertainty estimation (IEUE) of views. Specifically, we use the distributions of posterior probability to learn the “internal uncertainty” of each independent view, and adopt the inconsistencies between views to estimate the “external uncertainty”. Classification accuracies of the proposed method for the four benchmark HSI datasets can be as high as
, respectively, demonstrating the improved performance as compared with other state-of-the-art methods.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited